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To the 20th anniversary of "Prosvita" section in KPI. About the Ukrainian mathematical terminology


КПІ - 1930. Сторінка з праці М. Кравчука

If you want to work for the Ukrainian people, became the best scientists and write your works in Ukrainian. Then, unintentionally, others will learn Ukrainian to get acquainted with your work
by P. Zhytetsky

The formation issue of Ukrainian mathematical terminology takes a significant place in the mathematics education history in Ukraine. In these issues studying should not lose sight of the adverse conditions in which Ukrainian culture and science in pre-revolutionary period was developing. When in all schools teaching was Russian, and books and research papers on mathematics have never published Ukrainian language.

An important role for the educational spreading has played founded in Lviv, Society named by Shevchenko, in 1892 and renamed as the Scientific Society of Shevchenko (Shevchenko Scientific Society).  In the Shevchenko Scientific Society was created three sections: math-natur-medical, historic- philosophical, philological. The first section was made by the decision of the general meeting SSS 11th May 1893, then elected its chairman naturalist Ivan Verkhratskiy. There was three mathematicians in the original section: Petro Ohonovskyy Vladimir Levitsky, Klym Hlibovskyi. Since 1897 began the publication of  "Mathematical-natur-medical section proceeding." During the period to 1939 except the above-mentioned three, the were members, such as well-known mathematics: M.Chaykovskyy, V.Stasyuk, N.Sadovskyy, D.Grave, M.Petrovych, M.Kravchuk, M.Zarytskyy, M.Krylov, M.Kurenskyy, S.Banah, D.Gilbert, A.Aynshtayn and others.

80-90 years of the nineteenth century include the first systematic terminological work in Ukraine. That's when Volodymyr Levytsky and Ivan Verkhratskiy began publish in "Memoirs of SSS" small mathematical terms dictionaries. And Scientific Society in Kiev on tenth years of the twentieth century and terminological commission at some scientific institutions executed similar work.

Activation in this case intensified after 1917 with the creation of the Central Council and the proclamation of the Ukrainian Narodna Republic. Numerous community organizations, groups and individuals overtook the work. There was collected and determined people's vocabulary, it was recorded various workers, craftsmen, railwaymen, issued small branch dictionaries.

The natural section terminology commission of the Kiev Scientific Society (established August 11, 1918) began to conduct extensive work: during 1918-20. Here were operated the subcommittee - mathematical, physical, zoological, geological, anthropological, medical and others. In 1919 was created orthographic -terminological commission at the Academy of Sciences, where was natural, technical, law and orthographic section.

There was an unification of terminology in one institution in 30th of May, 1921  - then appoint the Institute of the Ukrainian Scientific Language Academy of Sciences (IUSLAS). Head of the Institute was Academician A.Yu.Krymskyy. IUSLAS  had six departments: Natural (9 sections, including mathematical), technical (11 sections), socioeconomic (6 sections), artistic (2 sections), rights. After signing the agreement with the State Publishing House of Ukraine for laying 34 terminological dictionaries in the state working head of the Institute (H.Holodnyy), 12 editors, technicians 6; freelance employees was 223 persons (as to 1 November 1928), among them - 3 academicians, 44 professors, 40 high school teachers, 6 directors of scientific institutions. The highest body IUSLAS was editorial department which keep all the scientific and methodological functions. A lot of attention was paid to conclusion of terminological dictionaries. Each dictionary had the subtitle "project", contained Ukrainian-Russian or Russian-Ukrainian part. Many dictionaries correspondences submitted in German, French, Latin and English. Each term fed the recommended variant where was used synonyms indicating the sources from which it was taken.

For two years was signed and issued 24 dictionaries on different fields of science, technology and culture. IUSLAS was the main institution with which the majority agreed dictionaries terminology preparing other scientific institutions and individual authors.

Great work on the collection and creation  Ukrainian mathematical terminology conducted the Kiev Society schooling Commission. It was published first three small terminology and phraseology collection (1917) in the programs form (project arithmetical terms submitted V.Sharko, and algebraic and geometric - M.Kravchuk), the first elementary textbooks and books of problems, including mathematics textbook for agricultural profschools ( M.Kravchuk, Bilyk). Incomplete bibliography by 1927 the volume of textbooks and methods of elementary mathematics contains about 100 titles.

Several years of work, chaired by professors M.Kravchuk and M.Stolyarov completed three volumes of the edition of " Mathematic Dictionary." Important work of collecting and preparing materials for printing had F.Kalynovych (for the first two volumes) and F.Kalynovych and H.Holodnyy (for the third volume). There was also a collection of Fedor (Fyodor) (Ed. Prof. Kryzhanivskiy) in the Odessa research mathematics department.

Ukrainian mathematics-methodologists O.Astryab, M.Myhaylivskyy, K.Scherbyna, V.Voropay, D.Sintsov, V.Pavlovskyy, L.Kareta and others, enriched mathematical terminology, introduced many new mathematical terms (for example, stretch, collateral, profitable, equations, etc.).

And on the verge of 20-30s political situation in Ukraine has changed, "Ukrainization" was over, what led to the disaster and in the terminology case.

After the IEDs process, whose victims were the leading figures of Ukrainian science and culture (including academician S. Yefremov, IUSLAS head H.Holodnyy) IUSLAS was disbanded. Some personnel's involvement Institute that survived from the wave of repression, continued to work in the newly established Linguistic Institute Terminology department and nomenclature. During the years 1931-33 was perfectly made edition of 5 dictionaries, and issued a series of 4 practical dictionaries.

And finally work was interrupted in 1933, what demonstrated by  the active section of the Communist Party leader A.Khvyli "Destroy the roots of Ukrainian nationalism in the linguistic front." Special team during 1933-1935 revised mathematical, physical, methodical, and industrial botanical terminology, prepared five ballots, which were actually repressed lists of terms. Each ballot had the slogan "Against nationalism in mathematical [or other] terms." It was removed about half of recommended earlier Ukrainian terms, the results of years of work of a large team IUSLAS and others were declared "bourgeois-nationalistic sabotage" and removed from using. In 1936 was issued only one dictionary, "purified of malicious terminology". Terminology work in Ukraine stopped for many years. Dictionaries majority destroyed or hidden in special closed storages.

Some glimpse came in the years of "Perebudovy (Reconstruction)" (1985-90 years) and demonstrable progressive perspectives after the proclamation of Ukrainian independence (24 August1991). Unfold special storages, many "forbidden" literature transferred to public funds, increased work with academic training and mathematic methodology development, etc.

The official language status, Ukrainian language is given in 1989 and secured by the Constitution of 1996, suggests its use in all sectors of the economy, science and culture. Expanding the use of different-Ukrainian language requires careful study, among others Shogo - and terminology-lexical and image problems. There are printed and electronic dictionaries. A terminological variation, due, in particular, the presence of many foreign terms in origin, show that over Ukrainian terminology in all science fields we need to work a lot.

Certainly, no terminology is not established, there is always fixed (constant) and volatile elements. The question is in the ratio of these two types of elements. If the constant elements dominate, we have terminology stability. The main terminologists and lexicographers purpose is the normalization of a national terminology, avoiding excessively large number of foreign elements. There is a need for large modern dictionaries, including – Different-branches.

From 90 years of the twentieth century is a series of national, regional and international conferences devoted Ukrainian scientific and technical terminology (for example, International scientific conference "Ukrainian scientific and technical terminology problems", Lviv, 1992, 1993, 1994 g.), created in many universities, Ukrainian researching institutions, standardization centers of scientific and technical terminology (for example, the Kyiv National University named by Shevchenko, NTUU "KPI"), reprinted old and create new vocabularies and others.

And a large proportion of the problems of Ukrainian mathematical terminology, its development, the improvement lies directly on teachers, teachers of mathematics. And the best role models are scientific works of world fame Ukrainian mathematician M. Kravchuk (1892-1942). His "Selected mathematical works", published in 2002, should be required reading for each math! A book L.O.Dunduchenko, V.V. Yasinskyy "Higher Mathematics" (in two volumes, published in 2006-2007.) - A worthy continuation of mathematical works M.Kravchuka, from methodological and terminological point of view. These books are written is truly a living Ukrainian language, they are unique in educational literature over the last half century!

Even today words of H.Holodnyy sounds currently (1928): "The apparent formula is an axiom that good scientific terminology is a sign of people’s cultural maturity, and for us no less obvious is the inverse formula – the science development and its absorption should heavily contribute good scientific language and scientific terminology. "

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At the end there are some illustrative examples of mathematical phraseology, certain terms, words, utterances, which even now causes difficulties in translation.

Разложитьфункциювряд – розгорнутифункціюуряд (to spread out function in a row),

функцияудовлетворяетусловиям – функціясправджуєумови (coversine satisfyes the condition),

и тем более – і поготів (all the more),

впрочем – зрештою (however; by the way)

ввиду – зогляду (on this account),

вернее всего – певніше за все (most likely),

на самом деле – справді (actually),

в случае чего – у разі чого (in which case),

довольномного – чимало (a good many; a smart few; quite a few),

к сведению – до відома (for information),

междутем – проте (meanwhile; however; nevertheless),

надополагать – требаприпустити (probably; it is to be supposed),

частные решения – частинні роз в'язки (partial solution),

повозможности – якомога (as far as possible),

несмотря на то, что – дарма що (whereas; although),

ни под каким видом – ні в якому разі (not on any account),

покрайнеймере – принаймні (at any rate; leastways; no less than),

прежде всего – насамперед, передусім (inthefirstinstance),

согласно условию – згідно з умовою (in specie, under the conditions),

так же – так само (as well; same),

удобныйслучай – нагода (chance; opportunity; handle),

хотя – дармащо(although; though; despite the fact that ),

курс теории вероятностей – курс теорії імовірностей (probabilitytheorycourse).

Often it is wrong used (translated) the names of mathematicians:

Вейерштрасс – Ваєрштрас (Weierstrass), Лиувилль – Ліувіль (Liouville), Нейман – Нойман (Neumann), Эйлер – Ойлер (Euler), Гаусс – Гаус (Gauss), Эйнштейн – Айнштайн (Einstein).

Introducing the new term, the teacher should write it on the chalkboard, properly read, put the emphasis. Pay attention to stress, for example, in the words:

аргумент, комплексне, ознака, асимптота, косинець,поверхня, визначник, множина, предмет, дециметр, нескінченний, проміжок, завдання, об'єднання, сантиметр, запитання, об'єм, сегмент, знаменник, обсяг, симетрія, кілометр, одинадцять, чисельник.

argument, complex, attribute, asymptote, gon, surface, determinant, plural,subject, decimetre, endless, interval, task, union, centimeter, question, volume, segment, denominator, volume, symmetry, kilometer, eleven, numerator.

It would not hurt sometimes to submit even etymology (origin) of terms under consideration, such as "geometry" - from the Greek word – land and – to measure. A number of examples are given in my book "Essays on Teaching Method of Mathematics."

N.Virchenko, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, professor

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