At the end of the XIX century the economic development of Russia scored a rapid pace. Coal, metallurgy, machinery, light industry, food industry, agriculture were developed intensively. However, there was an acute shortage of engineers, technicians and agronomists. According to official data in 1892 from 27132 technical managers of Russian factories and plants only 2076 has the technical education, ie 7.5%, higher professional education - less than 1% [1, p. 55].
Speaking at a trade convention in 1896, prof. V.L. Kirpichev, while the director of the Kharkov Institute of Technology, said: "All directors of higher education institutions overwhelmed with requests to send engineers. But we are not able to satisfy these requests "[2, p. 404]. Indeed, in eleven technical colleges, while operating in Russia, there were only 5497 students [3, p. 94]. Situation was skillfully used by foreign firms, they tried to penetrate deeper into the Russian economy, to put it more dependent on foreign capital. Note that in Germany, for example, the need to open some new technicral schools was motivated by the construction of the Siberian railway. Not accidentally at Russian enterprises there were a third of foreign specialists [2, p. 411].
At many meetings, in the press there were insistently expressed concerns about the increasing number of students by creating new and expansion of existing senior special technical schools, improving teaching methods. Particular interest in this was expressed by the industrial and financial bourgeoisie, whose interests, in particular, were protected by the Ministry of Finance. Imperial power was to give in and give consent to the opening of new technical schools.
A major role in the development of higher technical education and determining the types of higher education institutions was played by the Russian Technical Society, which brought together a significant part of progressive-minded scientists and engineers. 1897 when the society created a "Commission on Higher Technical Schools", which included 40 prominent scientists and specialists, including D.I.Mendeleev, M.P. Petrov, D.P. Konovalov, D.S. Zernov, M.A. Bunge et al. [4, p. 68]. Examining the question of the relationship of levels of higher education in Russia and abroad, the Commission concluded that the university system of education does not provide training needs and develop clear recommendations for expanding and improving the quality of higher technical education in Russia. The Commission, in particular, stressed that the most suitable type of higher technical institutions can be Polytechnic Institute and found it appropriate to maintain the existing technical colleges without any change in the educational process. Soon there were began to open up new polytechnics. Already in 1898 they were opened the doors Warsaw and Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Yekaterinoslav Higher Mining School, 1900 - Tomsk Institute of Technology, 1902 - Peterbrzky Polytechnic Institute, 1907.- Don Polytechnic Institute in Novocherkassk. These institutions, together with the existing steel training centers, promoted the development of advanced scientific and technical ideas.
November 25, 1896 in Kiev it was held a meeting, which was attended by Professors University of Kiev, city officials, the administration of the Southern Railway, engineers, industrialists [1, p. 58]. It was decided to set up in Kiev higher technical educational institution - Polytechnic Institute consisted of mechanical, engineering, chemical and agronomic offices.
The place to accommodate the Polytechnic Institute was not chosen by chance - it was a university city, cultural, administrative and commercial center, an important junction of road, water and rail routes, the center of food and light industry.
To address organizational issues Chancellor's Regulation of Manufacture and Trade of the Ministry of Finance set up a special committee, which took over the logistics. At the meeting, the Committee decided on the location for the construction of the Institute and developed the conditions of competition for the best project of its construction. Education in the institute was to begin in the autumn of 1898 in temporarily rented premises. To solve practical problems the committee created several sub-committees, including the construction, which took up the search for the necessary funds for the construction of the institute, because there was no state money.
The required amount (about three million) were collected mainly by private donations: Kiev Exchange Committee has raised 72,000 rubles, M.A. Tereshchenko-150, heirs F.A. Tereshchenko – 15, L.I. Brodsky - 100, K.Y. Sulyatitsky - 5, I.M. Zaitsev – 10, M.B. Halperin – 10, Ya. Epstein - K 24, Kiev prombank- 15, K.V. Fishman – 10, M.S. Schenkivsky heirs and I.F. Yaroshinsky – 10, F.L. Sabanskiy - 15, Kiev City Council – 300, thousand. Rub. [5, p. 6; 1, p. 61]. In addition, some employers have deducted the appropriate percentage of the profits from the sale of sugar.
To develop a charter and staffing the institute, curricula and programs it has been established so-called drafting committee under the chairmanship of Professor C.M.. Solski. It is composed of Professor S. Bogdanov, M.A. Bunge, G.G. De Metz et al. [2, p. 422]. And all the functions of the organization and construction of the Institute were carried out by the building commission, headed by prof. M.V. Samofalov. Its work was actively participated by Institute Professors K.A. Zworykin, M.I. Konovalov, Y.N. Wagner, E.P. Votchal, G.G. De Metz, S.M. Reformatsky, P.R. Slezkine, M.P. Chirvinskii [12. 483].
For the construction of the Institute the city government proposed several plots in different areas of the city. After careful review, the Commission has chosen an area of 38 tithes, stretching along the Brest-Litovsk highway. It was a former demining field with two sandy hills in the middle, with many ditches and pits, without a single tree or bush. And yet the place for the Institute was well chosen: it was good to the city.
It was declared the contest to construct a three-storey main building and a two-storey chemical pavilion as major facilities for training 1,200 students. The project should provide accommodation classrooms, laboratory rooms, rooms for drawing, lighting, equipment, and construction of ancillary facilities.
Of the eight projects submitted to the contest Commission has selected a project developed by Academician S. Kitner, which was approved after minor revision. In May 1898 excavation works were started [3, p. 97]. Since S. Kitner lived in St. Petersburg and could not directly supervise construction, since the middle of 1890 the construction work was headed by architect A.V. Kobelev, one of the contestants building projects of the institute. Finishing work was led by architects A.M. Verbitsky, V.A. Osmak et al.
In the preparation of highly qualified engineers a significant role was played by scientific groups in which students deepen knowledge obtained during lectures, got acquainted with the state of the industry. There was formed a technical mindset instilled an interest in science. The initiators of these groups were senior students, who felt that the course of the program does not give them sufficient knowledge of the subjects and information on scientific and technological achievements. Mechanical department, for example, in the training plan does not include courses in internal combustion engines, steam turbines, aeronautics and others. Therefore, the student groups were appeared in all departments.
Firstly the Engineering group was formed in the institute (January 1902), which was attended by Professor G.D. Dubelir, E.A. Paton and other scientists. At the same time under the guidance of prof. A.A. Radtsig it was began working mechanical group [12, p. 65]. On the initiative of the chemical department prof. M.I. Konovalov carried out the so-called chemical readings in which scientific reports were made by students. In 1909 there was organized a chemical group, led by prof. L.V. Pisarzhevsky. The group was named after M.I. Konovalov. It was actively worked aeronautics group, created in November 1908 by prof. M.B. Delaunay. One year later, he was united about 200 students and teachers [12, p. 191]. After Petersburg flying club it was the second in the country. Members of the group have created their own air works shop where gliders were made, and from 1910 the airplanes. The first on the plane of his own design prof. A.S. Kudashev rose in the air. Student F.F. Andres made the first model of the airship, and later, in 1912, the country's first airship "Kyiv", on which he flew. For testing aircraft structures by prof. M.B. Delaunay it was built a wind tunnel. The members of aeronautics became the nucleus of the "Kiev Ballooning Society" founded in 1909 by Professors M.A. Artemyev and M.B. Delaunay. Work circle became more and more fruitful. For 1909- 1913 there were constructed about 40 aircraft. The group continued to function until the beginning of the war. 1915 the right wing of the main building was given to the aircraft workshop in which German aircraft were repaired and new were built. Aeronautics group later became the basis for the creation of the institute faculty with aviation specialty, and soon - separate Civil Aviation Institute.
Work of the groups was multifaceted. There were given and discussed reports on the achievements of science and technology, which, in addition to professors, and students often performed, organized excursions to the best companies, created a museum, a library of specialized literature, publish educational literature for students, conduct research and development work., In scientific circles, students expand their horizons, received scientific experience. The members of these groups constituted the galaxy of renowned engineers and scientists, among them metallurgist academician of the USSR I.P. Bardin, one of the founders of the science of colloidal chemistry Acad. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences A.V. Dumanskiy, prof. V.F. Bobrov, outstanding designer of aircraft engines A.A. Mikulin, aircraft V.P. Grigoriev. Designed by V.P. Grigoriev plane was used by the Russian army and has been successfully used in the fighting in the First World War. After the October Revolution, a talented designer has done a lot for the development of domestic aircraft industry. Aeronautics group became a school for aircraft designers such as D.P. Grigorovich, brothers Alexander, Ivan and Eugene Kasyanenko, the world aircraft designer I.I. Sikorski (1914 in 1912 created the aircraft "Grand", "Russian Vityaz", "Ilya Muromets" and began multiengine aircraft). 1919 I.I. Sikorsky emigrated to the US in 1939 and created about 15 types of aircraft. In 1939 he began to design single-engine helicopters, which were later widely used. I.I. Sikorski was the first to build a turbine helicopters, helicopters, amphibious, "flying crane" [27, p. 358]. Americans rightly called I.I. Sikorsky the father of American helicopter.
The administration of the institute always took care of the publication of scientific and popular works. Since 1900 the university issued "Proceedings of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute" in the form of books in a volume of about 400 pages. These books consist of several sections: the official, physical and mathematical and chemical, natural history and agronomic, mechanical engineering, which housed the official materials and scientific works of scientists of the Institute, an annual report on the work of the Institute, published lists of students, educational literature and other materials .
Kiev Polytechnic Institute Essay istorii.- Kiev: "Naukova Dumka", 1995.- 320 p.