ECTS – the structural reform of higher education in the European space

The process of European unification, its spread to the East and the Baltic countries is accompanied by the formation of a joint educational and scientific space and develop uniform criteria and standards in this area across the entire continent. This process became known as the name of the University of Bologna in the Italian city of Bologna, where such initiatives have been launched.

Let’s us to consider the basic principles of the Bologna process and higher education in Ukraine compliance with its requirements due to the prospect of integration into the European education and research area.

The content and major components of the Bologna Process

Integration process in science and education has two components: the formation of the Commonwealth of leading European universities under the auspices of the document, called the Great University Charter (Magna Charta Universitatum - ), and the integration of national systems of education and science with common European space requirements, criteria and standards. The main goal of this process is the consolidation efforts of scientific and educational community and governments of Europe to significantly improve the competitiveness of the European system of science and higher education in a global dimension (for example, over the last 15-20 years, it is much inferior to the American system), and to enhance the role of system of social transformation. The Bologna process had its background, which is developing and signing by the European Lisbon Convention (1997) on the recognition of qualifications for the European Higher Education area and Sorbonne Declaration (Paris, Sorbonne, 1998) on the coordination structure of higher education in Europe. The Bologna process at the State level was established on June 19, 1999 in Bologna (Italy), 29 Ministers of Education signed on behalf of their government document called the "Bologna Declaration". This act of participating countries agreed on common requirements, criteria and standards for national systems of higher education, and agreed to establish a single European Higher Education and Research Area by 2010. Within this space shall act only requirements for the recognition of diplomas, employment and mobility of citizens that significantly increase the competitiveness of the European labor market and education. Actually, this document was declared the overall acceptance of comparative educational levels, including through the adoption of the Diploma Supplement, the introduction in all countries of the two cycles by the equation 3 + 2 with the first bachelor cycle should last at least three years, and the second Masters Degree - at least two years and they have seen the European labor market just as educational and skill levels, the creation of credits according to the European system of transfer evaluations, including lifelong learning, promoting European cooperation in quality assurance, developing comparable criteria and methods of quality assessment, eliminating obstacles to the mobility of students and teachers within your space.

next phase of the Bologna process took place in Prague on 19 May 2001, where representatives of 33 European countries signed the Prague Communiqué. Major decisions of the summit include countries reaffirmed their position on goals set by the Bologna Declaration, the participants appreciated the active participation in the European University Association (EUA) and the National Unions of Students in Europe (ESIB); They noted the constructive assistance of the European Commission and expressed observations on the further process, taking into account the different objectives of the Bologna Declaration.

The Summit highlighted the important elements of the European Higher Education Area, namely continuous lifelong learning, motivated by engaging students in learning, promoting the attractiveness and competitiveness of the European Higher Education Area to other parts of the world (especially aspects of transnational education).

third phase of the Bologna Process was held in Berlin, September 18-19, 2003, which was signed by the relevant communiqué. A fundamentally new solution to the Berlin summit is to spread of European requirements and standards on doctorates. It was established that in the countries - participants of the Bologna process - must be a PhD - "Doctor of Philosophy" in their respective fields of knowledge (science, socio-humanitarian, economic, etc.)… The formula of three-level education (3-5-8), according to which at least three years for a given level of "bachelor", at least 5 years - for level "master" and a minimum of 8 years for the scientific degree "doctor philosophy. "It is important that educational and skill level and degree are considered as components of an integrated system of education rights. Attention is focused on the need to promote European higher education area. It paid special attention to the importance of control and compliance with European standards of education throughout the space. The standards in Europe develop and support the well-known international organization entitled "European Network of quality assurance (European Network Quality Assurance - ENQA)". There was developed additional modules, courses and curricula with European content, orientation and relevant organization. It was emphasized the important role to be played by higher education institutions to make a reality of lifelong learning. It is noted that the European Higher Education Area and European Research Area - two interconnected community of knowledge. It is important that the light of these new solutions to the Bologna collaboration with other six countries were accepted and Russia (hence the Bologna Process now includes 40 European countries). Clearly, given the deep traditions of the Russian Education and Science of the Russian Federation will not be easy to give up the many benefits of the system, such as the two degrees in the future - from the Supreme Attestation Commission as a public authority control standard of academic degrees and so on.

Zustrich Rectors of European vuziv Fourth Summit of the Bologna process is scheduled May 19-20, 2005 in Bergen (Norway).

Thus, the Bologna process is a process of structural reform of national higher education systems in Europe, changes in educational programs and the necessary institutional changes in higher education in Europe. Its goal is to create up to 2010 European scientific and educational space to increase the capacity of graduates increased mobility of citizens in the European labor market, raising the competitiveness of European higher education. To achieve this, it was proposed to adopt suitable and clear graduation diplomas, degrees and qualifications; to enter at its core two-tier structure of higher education; to enter the European space degree of Doctor of Philosophy; use a single system of credit units (system ECTS - European Community Course Credit Transfer system), also known as a system of credit units, offsetting credit system, credit system levels, system of credits, mutual credit system, etc., to introduce unified and mutually recognized by the European space diploma Supplement, turn out to support and promote European quality standards using comparative criteria, mechanisms and methods of assessment in accordance with ENQA; remove existing barriers to enhance the mobility of students, teachers, researchers and administrators of higher education.

At all stages of the Bologna Process was announced that the process is voluntary, involving many such, based on the values of European education and culture, one that does not undermine the national characteristics of education systems across Europe, multivariate, flexible, open; gradual.

But we should not idealize the Bologna process. It is uneven, contradictory, and difficult. His goal is still very hypothetical. How to join this process and alignment with their benefits and risks? However, considering all the "pros" and "cons" for countries seeking economic and social development, and eventually join the European Union (EU), there is no alternative to the Bologna Process. We are already significantly late in this regard.

The more we wait with decisive steps, the harder it will be for us to join the Bologna community. If the founding conference in Bologna in 1999 to the first 29 countries put forward almost essential requirements, it is at the Prague Summit in 2001 to the following four candidates were serious enough and the seven countries that were part of the Bologna community at the Berlin Summit in 2003 forced had to withstand a real test. Of course, joining this community of these countries in the Bergen Summit 2005 will be very difficult.

To join the Bologna community and, most importantly, to become a full member, Ukraine will have to go on a major transformation in higher education and science. The most important this case is to a detailed comparative analysis of the national system of science and education with a European (with the Bologna model). According to the results of this analysis to determine what should be changed in our system, and initiate appropriate reforms.

These reforms will not be able to be "cosmetic". They must relate to the underlying fundamentals of our education and research. Through them, we must answer the question what and how to teach in today's highly competitive world? We cannot avoid the real integration of national science and education. Due to the complexity of the recognition of educational qualification of "specialist" there is a need to establish an equivalent system of the second level. This is especially important for the training and qualification of engineers in a creative practice that should end mandatory inventions and the creation of new technology. We'll have to make tough decisions regarding the system degrees of candidates and doctors of sciences and the principles of their award.

Towards these reforms, there are still many challenges. But next time feature that prevent these changes it is impossible for not pursuing reforms or delay them, our country will strengthen insulating effects from both Europe and from Russia is increasingly deepening their own social and economic crisis.

Directions structural reform of higher education in Ukraine due to the Bologna Process

Considering the irreversibility of the Bologna process, we must realize that for our higher education system, it is very difficult. For us it’s more difficult than for any other country that has such deep tradition in the field of basic natural and engineering education, to join many European decisions, leveling our researches in this area. Just our higher education only in engineering, educated an inventor of helicopters Igor Sikorsky, space discoverers Serhiy Korolyov and Vladimir Chelomey, unsurpassed aircraft engine cradles designer Arkhip Lulka, the founder of Solid State Electronics Bentsion Voula, it gave the world high-speed transport in magnetic levitation. This list can be long continued.

Therefore we must accept new challenges not only by enduring foundation for our experience of other countries, but by offering the European community its completion, achievement, offers our vision of problems. So we must achieve a harmonious blend of European innovation and best national traditions. But we must frankly admit that in recent years in the field of higher education in Ukraine, especially technical, complex problems have been accumulated, solution of which remains on the agenda, despite the presence or absence of factors such as the Bologna process.

  1. the excess number of training areas and specialties, respectively 76 and 584. The best worldwide systems of higher education have 5 times less.
  2. insufficient recognition in the community the level of "bachelor" as a qualification level, its uselessness by the domestic economy. Normally, the admission to the university passes according to the spatiality; we do not accept on four-year degree courses.
  3. The tends to worsen the quality of higher education that grows with time is threaten in the mass dimension .
  4. The increasing of the gap communication between teachers and employers, between the education and labor markets.
  5. The unwarranted confusion in understanding of specialist and master. On the one hand, there is the proximity of training programs of specialists and masters, their equivalence according to the qualification status, but on the other - they are accredited at different levels, respectively according III and IV.
  6. We put up with the neglecting of advanced research in educational institutions that are the foundation of university training. Our system of academic degrees is complex in comparison with European, which makes mobility of teachers and researchers in Europe more difficult.
  7. The solution of the future fate of such widespread level of education as schools and colleges is inadequately to the needs of society and the labor market, despite the fact that their numbers in the state four times greater than high school of III and IV accreditation levels combined.
  8. The system of further training and retraining, which was well-organized for centralized economy, went to the past. A new system that would satisfy the needs of a market economy in Ukraine is not created. Therefore, there is very important European principle of "education through life" according to the conditions in our country cannot be fully realized yet.
  9. The Universities of Ukraine do not take on the role of methodological centers, innovators, pioneers of social change, which the country should succeed. The level of autonomy of higher education institutions in these areas is much lower than in the European. The institutions that have national status do not act as methodological leaders at the time when their number reached about 40% of the total university of III and IV levels of accreditation.

These and other obstacles impair recognition of our higher education system of outside world, reinforcing the isolationist tendencies, impair the mobility of our students, teachers and researchers within the European Higher Education Area and the labor market.

To reduce these obstacles means for us to be, so to speak, on the ground floor of a huge building, which is called "Europe of Knowledge".

"On the second floor," we’ll face to major structural changes. It is the modernization quality control system education, coordination of a two-tier system with the European model, the introduction of pan-European credit offsets and timing of training, the introduction of degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

As it was defined in "Salaman appeal" (2001), the quality is a fundamental condition for recognition, for trust, compatibility and attractiveness in Europe. Berlin Communiqué (2003) defines quality of education as the foundation of a European space.

important to us, given the above, there are a few guidelines: monitoring of the quality of education should be complete, stable, transparent, objective; quality and accreditation, which are strongly linked, put forward our well-developed system of licensing and accreditation of new challenges regarding the use of European standards and therefore our participation in the European network of quality assurance in higher education (system ENQA) is required in the near future; quality control should focus not only on the control of the educational process, scientific-methodological software, facilities, etc., and, above all, on the control of students, especially graduates, determining their competence and ability to meet the demands of the labor market; to de accredited should be not only education institutions and professions, but also the individual educational programs, it is something with which we have not yet come across, but the internal quality assessment inevitable external evaluation supported by ENQA and providing an opportunity to evaluate training programs outside their country by total criteria.

On the coordination of a two-tier system, the problem would not be too difficult if our education system wasn’t faced the problem of resolving the fate of technical schools and colleges.

The verdict of the public and government on this issue may be defined at the intersection of multiple solutions, for example, by fully integration of the best schools and colleges in establishments III, IV accreditation levels, creating conditions for them to provide educational qualification "Bachelor" and to transform the rest into secondary education institutions to provide graduate level skilled workers.

we have to take the responsible decisions regarding educational qualification "Specialist". Obviously, while they claimed our economy, this level should be stored. The real fate of the levels of "expert" and "master" in our country will be solved with time according to their relevance to the labor market which also would be gradually integrated into the Middle Europe

The similar approach could be applied to the system of academic degrees in Ukraine. According to the Berlin Communiqué in 2003 we would be beneficial in addition to the existing system "and Ph.D. candidate" to enter the degree "Doctor of Philosophy" in accordance with international standards. For many researchers the barriers to mobility in the European scientific and educational space would be removed. The traditional system of academic degrees would be as it was, in demand in the labor market as long as the fate of both the first and the second system would not completely resolve in the future.

It has been written and said a lot about the introduction of the European system of mutual credit units. Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine initiated an experiment to determine the characteristics of credit-modular system similar to ECTS. In November 2003, in Lviv, the scientific and practical conference devoted to the issue. Leaving aside the merits of this system, we note that an alternative to its implementation in Ukraine doesn’t exist. By doing so, we shall remove a significant obstacle to the recognition of our higher education system outside world.

During the implementation of these structural changes is important to provide broad rights of universities in adopting European standards - in whole or in part and in certain terms. It is especially important that universities themselves fully understood that the end of their attractiveness to students and schools students depends on what choice these universities made and how quickly they embody those choices in life.

All documents of the Bologna Process and related problems, primarily related to the students. They are the center around which the entire system is built.

Lisbon Convention and the Sorbonne and Bologna Declaration recognized that the primary purpose of the signed document is to facilitate the access of citizens of each European state schools and students to educational resources and labor markets in other countries.

But what is the practical way to enable young people to use these rights?

here there is a formulation of three necessary and sufficient principles which, unfortunately, are the most difficult to implement in our country. There are the mobility of membership of educational space, especially students; educational services and attractive employment opportunities.

The unite component of these three principles is that they, in fact, go beyond purely educational system - they are the prerogative of the state, and in our national conditions, they can be made in the process of socio-economic integration of our country into the European space.

mobility is an important quality feature of European space; it provides mobility of people between universities and between states.

In Ukraine it prevent systemic inconsistencies visa and economic characteristics of our country, in the end the difference between living standards in Ukraine and the EU. But when it comes to internationalization of education, educators have a wing of globalization, the government should be exclusive.

The attractiveness of universities for students is a large comprehensive loss component, which includes the prospect for a career that allows university, quality and cost of training, cost of living, availability of public services, the availability of scholarship programs, respect for European and world values, lack of ethnic and religious conflicts, compliance with European educational standards and so on.

Employment - this is the third principle underlying the rights of young people on global education.

Bologna Declaration affirmed that the possibility of employment it is a major issue for higher education institutions in Europe; is a strategic goal that has no alternative. Employment is an indicator of the success of the Bologna process in general. It is so important that the debate on the appropriate course of study in any level of the participants concluded that the study, using the principle of "learning through life" should, until you find a job.

Thus, the higher floor of An Education European space can occupy states that are fully promote student self-expression that mainly provides golden triad - mobility, attractiveness, employment.

This prerogative, jurisdiction and duty of the state to the youth of Ukraine, Ukrainian system of education and to the European community.

Some conclusions

Bologna process is a process of recognizing a different educational system in Europe. If Ukraine's future lies with Europe, we cannot continue to argue that the Bologna Process has for us only educational and informative value. Providing high scores national education system does not reassure us and constrain the depth of reform.

The worldwide recognition of our high quality education and training is achievement of an earlier era, the previous system of government, the previous generation.

Now we can note with regret that despite the achievements of natural education, which provides a new socio-political system (democracy, flexibility), the mass dimension of quality education has become less, and the vast majority of graduates (especially new ones) are not competitive at the European labor market. It requires talk less about their achievements, and to analyze increasingly global and European trends in education reform and in accordance with this hard and consistently to improve our professional sphere of activity.

conjoined, the participation of Ukrainian higher education in Bologna transformations should focus only on its development and acquisition of new qualitative features, not on the loss of the best traditions of national standards, reduces its quality. Focusing on Bologna Process does not result in excessive adjustment of national education systems. On the contrary, its condition must deeply understand, comparing with European criteria and standards, and identify opportunities for improvement in the new stage. This evolution of the education system should not be separated from other areas of society. It has developed in a harmonious relationship with society as a whole, taking on the role of its leader.

The modernization of higher education in Ukraine (Law "On Higher Education" and a number of regulations of the Ministry of Education) has some common features with the Bologna process (input stage of the education system), but in most areas it does not match. This is due to the fact that the original concepts of this modernization were not focused on the integration of the national education system in the European space. They have more "internal" in nature and largely confined to "attach" the higher education system to the new domestic realities. At present the concept of reform, should radically revise and create a coherent program of rapprochement with the European Education and Research Area.

The Government of Ukraine should take a conscious political decision, which would be based on the needs of these reforms and would be the basis for strong foreign policy, oriented to integration of the national higher education system in the European space.

M. Zgurovsky, Rector of NTUU "KPI


the order dated 09.10.2006, the

№ 1-150

The program of measures for implementation of the Bologna Process at the University of

Dean's offices

№ PM measures (regulatory framework) Deadline Performers
1. Identifying a list of primary positions EQL "Bachelor" and competences of the relevant specialties (NK 003: 2005) November

Department of Academic Affairs, Issue Department
2. Identifying a list of initial positions level "master" and competences of the relevant specialties (NKOOZ: 2005) November

Department of Academic Affairs, Issue Department
3. Development structural logic master training programs in the fields February

Issue Department
4. development of new curricula for Bachelor and Master March

Department of Academic Affairs, Issue Department
5. development of new curricula for Bachelor and Master April

Department of Academic Affairs, Issue Department
6. syllabus for subjects of the 2nd semester (2, 4, 6 semesters on experimental faculties). December

Department of Academic Affairs, the relevant department
7. Analysis of RDF and the ECTS grading system in the fall semester. Improving RDF from spring semester courses January

Departments of teaching and educational work, the relevant department
8. development of rating assessment systems (RIS) in the disciplines of the 2nd semester (2, 4, 6 semesters on experimental faculties. January

Department of Academic Affairs, the relevant department
9. Development of Database of semester and integrated ranking students scholarships for determining and implementing the selection of students for graduate study program April

Departments teaching and educational work
10. Development of a database of current ranking students in disciplines term 2007 Departments teaching and educational work
11. development of requirements for graduation projects and works of bachelors and masters 2007 Department of Academic Affairs, Issue Department
12. Develop information packets institutions (faculties) May

13. development of university information package May

Departments teaching and educational work
14. introduction of the Diploma Supplement according to European Community 2007 Department of Educational Work


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