1898-1917: First Teaching staff KPI

Teaching staff KPI for the first time in the country used contest system for appointing Professors of Departments only between persons who have a scientific degree. It was the most appropriate method of recruitment departments highly qualified personnel [2, p. 469].

There were appointed ordinary and extraordinary professor. The first had a doctorate (pay 3 thousand rubles per year), the second - a master's degree (pay 2 thousand rubles per year). For the teaching of certain subjects (for lack of professors) teachers were selected on a competitive basis from persons who have received the title of associate institute. To obtain this it was necessary to graduate an university or higher technical educational institution and sustain competition in the relevant department.

The applicant must have read the trial lecture, submit and publicly defend the scientific work on the chosen specialty. Those who meet these requirements, were awarded the title of associate of the Institute and were entitled to vacant positions on the faculty in the relevant specialty. For teaching some subjects there were invited as teachers, technicians, supervisors that had higher education.

Professor V.L. Kirpichev - an experienced organizer of high school - could always find professors and teaching staff. To work at the institute, he invited many famous scientists of Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Kharkov. Among them there were prominent experts in the field of theoretical mechanics A.P. Kotelnikov and A.N. Dinnik, mathematics V.P. Ermakov and B.J. Boukreev, one of the founders of the theory of metal cutting K.A. Zworykin, geologist and mineralogist A. Nechayev, a famous scientist, metallurgist V.P. Izhevsky, the expert in heat power A.A. Radtsig, an outstanding specialist bridge constructor E.A. Paton, talented chemists M.I. Konovalov and L.V. Pisarzhevsky, Academician of the architecture A.V. Kobelev and the painter N.K Pimonenko. Later for the teaching job at the institute there were invited the worldwide mechanics S.P. Tymoshenko, K.K. Siminsky, S.V. Sorensen et al.

On the day of the fifteenth anniversary KPI V.L. Kirpichev said:

"A special joy for the institution, special luck that defined his brilliant development, was the opportunity to attract the eminent scientists from different disciplines. The institute is most obliged to them its initial arrangement and further development.

For the four branches of the Institute it was necessary to base a large number of laboratories, experimental stations, offices, museums, workshops and organizing them for practical training of students who are the soul of teaching in higher technical schools.

Professor of Mathematical Sciences, are not limited to lectures. They have introduced a large number of exercises that allowed students to work independently to solve practical problems. Professor of Engineering drawings arranged in the halls of numerous exercises, work on the design, by drafting machines, bridges, various structures ...

All this is a consequence of a happy wave that brought in the institute remarkable scientists, specialists, who gave an institution all their strength and put it in the grain of science, which gave lush shoots and rich harvest "[1, p. 36].

Among the outstanding teachers in the first place on should name prof. V.L. Kirpichiov, the first director of the Institute and head of the Department of Strength of Materials. In the organization of the pedagogical process he held progressive principles, which represented a combination of theoretical study and laboratory classes in workshops and practical training in industry [2, p. 390]. V.L. Kirpichev had a rare talent as a teacher. His lectures were distinguished by simplicity and conviction that is not achieved by simplifying complex issues, and through a clear definition of the main and characteristic moments. All this was remembered a long time by the students.

Each lecture, Professor V.L. Kirpichev carefully prepared. Constantly showing interest in the latest scientific and technological achievements, he used this knowledge in his lectures, conducted scientific experiments, sought understanding of the essence of the students to give them problems. His lectures attracted many students of various courses and faculties. Often great physical audience could not accommodate everyone [14, p. 133]. V.L. Kirpichev was a supporter of active creative work of students, involving them in research work. In the exemplary mechanical laboratory for testing various structural materials professor gave exciting workshops that promote creative thinking of students, their interest in research work [2, p. 385]. Erudition, rich teaching experience scientist allowed him to give lectures on a wide range of topics in the field of mathematics and mechanics - Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, theory of regulators, balancing machines, the study stresses the optical method, graphical solution of equations of the theory of elliptic functions, calculus of variations . This is not a complete list of courses, read by V.L. Kirpichev in the Kiev Polytechnic Institute.

More than 40 scientific papers on various aspects of technical sciences were authored by him. The works of V.L. Kirpichiov had a great influence on the development of national science and technology, contributed to the progressive changes in mechanical engineering. Among them there were the first published in Russia systematic course "Machine parts", printed in 1898 the course "Strength of Materials", for a long time remained the best textbook on the subject, tutorials, "Lectures on Mechanics" and "Basics of graphical statics", used by all students of technical colleges [15, p. ON]. These and other teaching aids professor V.L. Kirpichiov were repeatedly reprinted.

From founded V.L. Kirpichev school building mechanics of structures and machines it was appeared the whole group of brilliant scientists - K.K. Siminsky, A.N. Dinnik, S.V. Sørensen, M.V. Kornoukhov, M.M. Afanasiev and others. By his work, he claimed the priority of national scientists and innovators, multiplied the achievements of science and technology, promoted their implementation in life [16, p. 5].

Constantly worrying about the development of domestic engineering, V.L. Kirpichev in the selection of teaching staff paid special attention to the art-machine manufacturers. So, as a professor and dean of the Faculty of Mechanics he invited Professor KTI, an industrial engineer, founder of science of cutting metal K.A. Zworykin.

In a letter to the Department of Commerce and Manufactures V.L. Kirpichev gave him this description: "Professor E.A. Zworykin is the author of numerous works in the field of mechanical engineering. The most capital of them is that where he gave wide experimental and theoretical research effort and work when removing chips, for which the author was awarded the Russian Technical Society. Zworykin - talented designer-artist who is able to control the design of machines so that develops students' ability to design and teaches them self-design, and not just simple copy of existing models. These qualities prof. Zworykin are extremely important for the mechanical department of the Institute, which, for the development of mechanical engineering in our country must prepare their own designers, creators of new types of machines, since the exclusive imitation of foreign models Russian engineering to compete with foreign plants "[17, p. 1]. One can see that in the selection of teaching staff he focused on scientific activities, pedagogical skills, organizational skills, ability to communicate with students. KA Zworykin worked at the institute 30 years, read course of the mechanical technology, for a long time headed the Mechanical Department. In the laboratories, equipped on his initiative, students had practice in technology of metal.

The first head of the Department of Higher Mathematics was a professor, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences V.P. Ermakov - one of the outstanding Russian mathematicians and engineers. He enriched the science of original research in the field of series of variational calculus, theoretical mechanics, did much to popularize knowledge of mathematics, mathematical development of the national culture. Together with other scientists in 1890 he participated in the creation of the Kiev Physical and Mathematical Society - a major mathematical center of the country. V.P. Ermakov organized edition of the journal "Journal of experimental physics and elementary mathematics", which was very popular, especially among teachers. Renowned scholar, he briefly headed the society of mathematicians [15 p.119]. Since 1898 to 1922 V.P. Ermakov taught higher mathematics, higher algebra, analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus . He introduced practical training in these subjects. His lectures were distinguished by theoretical depth of ultimate sharpness, liveliness and simplicity. His textbooks on mathematics and mechanics were characterized the same advantages [18, p. 27]. He believed that training courses should avoid complications to interest the beginner and not scare him. Subtleties of mathematics are required only to mathematicians professionals. Until the end of his life the scientist remained in the labor office, giving all his strength education of engineering personnel.

During the 1906-1928 the theoretical mechanics at the institute was taught by prof. M.B. Delaunay pupil N.E. Zhukovsky, one of the founders of domestic gliding. Under his leadership, in the Institute it was first created Aviation Group, and based on it later - Mechanical Department. Subsequently, the faculty has grown into an independent institution. M.B. Delaunay created fundamental works on rigid body dynamics, collision theory of solids, as well as the theory of mechanisms. In 1908-1909 he built several gliders, biplanes [16, p. 6]. Scientist wrote a textbooks on theoretical mechanics, which in his time played a major role in the training of highly qualified technical personnel for the country.
Name O.P. Kotelnikov - a specialist in the theory and the theory of screws vectors –is widely known in our country and abroad. Invited 1899 in KPI, for the two terms 1899-1903 and 1914-1924 he lectured on theoretical mechanics [19, p. 240]. For in-depth study of the course he wrote the original books "Mechanics" and "Analytical Mechanics", equipped training room of theoretical mechanics. For great contribution to the development of national science and training of engineers in 1934 AP Kotelnikov was awarded the honorary title of Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the USSR [15, p. 203].

On the recommendation of M.E. Zhukovsky at the Department of Applied Mechanics the graduate of St. Petersburg University D.P. Ruzsky began his teaching career. In 1901 he defended his thesis (the first defense in KPI) for the title of associate professor. From 1898 to 1911 he lectured in applied mechanics, machine parts and hydraulic, led the design of hydraulic motors and special pumping stations, conducted the workshops on the course of turbines. His lectures, first published in 1899-1900, was reprinted several times. Within two years, prof. D.P. Ruzsky was dean of the Engineering department of [10, p. 283].

The founder of steam turbines production in our country prof. A.A. Radtsig worked as a teacher of the thermodynamics of heat engines since the founding of the institute up to 1911. In 1905 he defended his doctoral thesis "Mathematical Theory of heat exchange in the cylinders of steam engines." It was the first Russian work on thermodynamics. Then A.A. Radtsig wrote several textbooks on thermodynamics.

Prof. Y. Lomonosov - an outstanding expert in the field of steam locomotive, one of the founders of the locomotive - and D. Dubiler - a prominent expert in the field of road construction and electric theory worked on civil engineering and mechanical departments of the Institute since the first years of its existence.

For 25 years, the talented scientist and engineer prof. E.A. Paton led the Department of bridge construction. He was the author of more than 70 works, including many textbooks and manuals on the theory and practice of bridge building. A brilliant example of bridge building is a unique welded bridge in Kiev, built in 1952, what was called by his name. The length of the bridge is 1.5 km, the weight of 10 thousand tons. E.A. Paton was an outstanding expert in the field of electric, electric welding organizer specializing in the KPI, as well as the founder and head of the Research Institute of Electric Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, now named after him. Created under the direction of Paton electric welding machines did not have analogues in the world. For outstanding scientific achievements and fruitful teaching career, he was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, and State Prize [16, p. 7].

Y.M. Markovic - a prominent expert in the field of metal forming, began his work in 1898 in the Institute as the teacher of the drawing. He authored the works on calculations of steam and pneumatic hammers. Later, he organized the department of metal forming, gave a course of lectures, practical exercises in this discipline, led the design of machine parts and lifting mechanisms [20, p. 24].

A renowned scholar, a brilliant expert on the theory of elasticity and strength of materials academician UAS (1918) S.P. Tymoshenko worked in the Institute in 1906-1911 and 1918-1919. For a while he headed the Department of Strength of Materials, worked as the dean of the Faculty of Mechanical. On mechanical and civil engineering faculty he taught courses on strength of materials, graphic statics, elasticity theory of small oscillations. His lectures were so popular that they have been published, and students used them as textbooks. They were repeatedly reprinted and translated into many foreign languages abroad. S.P. Tymoshenko believed that to master the subject only the course of lectures is not enough for the necessary practical application of the theory, so he combined theoretical studies with practical. He has trained many interesting practical problems that were solved by students in the classroom. They later formed the basis of the textbook "Problems in Strength of Materials", which was widely distributed in our country and abroad. In a new way work of students was organized in the lab. Laboratory exercises were held in parallel with the reading of the lectures and the students tested theoretical positions lectures, studied the mechanical properties of various building materials in practice. S.P. Tymoshenko was constantly concerned about the improvement of the laboratory, its equipment. With his participation, students have designed and produced many new appliances and fixtures. Over the years (1906-1911) S.P. Tymoshenko presented the teaching of the theory of strength of materials to a high level of perfection. Under his leadership, the students of several issues received excellent knowledge in this discipline. He has trained many young scientists who later worked in the KPI and other institutions of higher technical educational institutions. Scientific papers Timoshenko, according to the assessment of the Board of the Faculty of Mechanical [10 p.272] became the important contribution to national and world science.

In 1920 S.P. Tymoshenko went abroad, in Yugoslavia, and in 1922 - in the United States, where he first worked as an engineer in the company Westinghouse Research Institute, then a professor at Michigan State University. Since 1936 he headed the Department of Mechanics at Stanford University, he founded the school presented this branch of science in the world's highest boundaries. In 1958 and 1967, prof. Timoshenko visited the Soviet Union and both times visited KPI, met with its collective.

Numerous monographs, great books, collections of works on strength of materials, the history of science, and in particular mechanics, many articles – this was a contribution to the science of one of the world's outstanding mechanics S.P. Tymoshenko.

Since 1908, prof. M.A.Voropaev worked at the department of mechanical technology (Department of General Technology of Metals and Foundry). He has lectured on the mechanical properties of metals, metallography, foundry. Prof. M.A. Voropaev was the scientist in the field of fatigue and strength of materials. He developed methods for studying fatigue iron for decades ahead of similar studies abroad and have not lost their significance today.

Professor K.K. Siminsky - one of the graduates of the institute in 1907 - 25 years worked at the Department of Strength of Materials, lectured on this course, as well as graphic statics, supervised practice of students. K.K. Siminsky authored the textbooks and teaching materials in structural mechanics. He first began to study the problems of fatigue strength steel space trusses for bridges, created a number of instruments for testing of bridges and structures, developed the theory of the strength of granite. Works of K.K. Siminskogo in structural mechanics, especially computation of spatial systems, have not lost their importance now. In 1925 he was elected a member of the UAS. K.K. Siminsky trained a galaxy of brilliant scientists, who for his work on the major issues of static and dynamic strength of machines and structures put forward national science to the forefront in the world. In 1920-1921 K.K. Siminsky worked as the dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and in 1924 - 1926 years was the Vice-Rector for education KPI.

Teaching of the electricity in the institute is associated with the name of prof. MA. Artemiev - an outstanding expert in electrical machines and devices. On the draft M.A. Artemiev in Kiev in 1890 it was built a central power plant and laid the urban grid. On his initiative in 1905-1906 it was created the aeronautics society in KPI.

The famous architect Prof. A.V. Kobelev lectured on architectural drawing and architectural design since 1899. Under his leadership there were constructed the buildings of the KPI, as well as the railway stations Kazatin, Sarni, the Pedagogical Institute building, the Central Telegraph Office in Kiev.

The famous Ukrainian artist M. Pimonenko taught the drawing in KPI.

Galaxy of brilliant scientists was working at the Chemistry Department. Among them there was the first dean of the faculty prof. M.I. Konovalov. With his direct participation there were developed curricula and programs prepared in all subjects that were taught at the Faculty. Laboratory department was equipped with first-class domestic and foreign equipment, every year they are updated with new appliances and equipment. According to experts, the chemical laboratory of the KPI at the time was the best in Russia [21, p. 79].

In 1898-1906 Prof. M.I. Konovalov taught a course in inorganic chemistry classes on general chemistry, supervised the diploma projects. Each of his lecture was a sample of pedagogical skills. With extreme clarity he stated scientific theorems, complex theoretical problems. M.I. Konovalov always attracted to scientific work young students, handed them his experience [21, p. 144]. Professor S.M. Reformatorsky, who for many years (1898-1904) worked alongside M.I. Konovalov, stressed that "a lot of work M.I. Konovalov developed in collaboration with his students. The ability to attract them was impressive "[22, p. 68]. Prof. M.I. Konovalov has always supported the initiative of the students. In the lab. MI Konovalov over time has developed a unique collection of more than 400 samples of chemicals, synthesized by his students [21, p. 73].

Basic results of M.I. Konovalov research were devoted to the study of organic compounds. He opened the nitrating action of nitric acid on limiting carbohydrates (reaction Konovalov) developed a method for oxides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, determined the structure of carbohydrates, and developed methods for isolation and purification of various naphthenes [23, p. 252]. In 1902-1904 M.I. Konovalov was the director of the institute. A great contribution to the organization and formation of the educational process at the institute was made by prof. V.G. Shaposhnikov - known scientist in the field of technology two-fibrous substances and chemicals Dyes. During the organization of the department, he took an active part in the drafting of curricula, education and laboratory equipment, organization of lectures and practical training. He worked in the institute since its foundation until 1922. Since1922 V.G. Shaposhnikov was the Member AUAS , founder and first director of the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology of the Academy of Sciences [10, p. 109].

Eminent chemist, successor of D.I.Mendeleev school in Ukraine L.V. Pisarzhevsky began working on chemical department since 1906. He first started fundamental research in the field of e-chemistry and made a number of significant discoveries, in particular laid the foundations of the theory of electron redox processes, developed an electronic theory of catalysis and the like. On the chemical department for long time he taught a course in inorganic chemistry and entry to the course of analytical chemistry. In the book "Introduction to Chemistry" L.V. Pisarzhevsky first highlighted material from the standpoint of the theory of electronic structure of atoms and molecules [23, p. 395]. 1925 L.V. Pisarzhevsky was elected AUAS academician, and in 1930 he became the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Prof. V.A. Plotnikov worked at the Department of Physical Chemistry since 1899 to 1941. He read the course of physical chemistry and thermodynamics, conducted classes in the physical and chemical laboratory, supervised diploma works [2, p. 110]. Since 1911 until 1941 he headed the Department of Physical Chemistry, in 1920-1921 he was the dean of the Faculty of Chemistry, and in 1921 - 1924 - the Vice-Rector for education. In 1920 V.A. Plotnikov was elected Academician of UAS, and in 1931 - a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In the same year he was appointed director of the Institute of Chemistry AUAS [23, p. 397].

Professors V.A. Plotnikov and V.F. Timofeev were well-known scientists in the study of non-aqueous solutions, for the first time got a metallic aluminum by electrolysis of non-aqueous solutions at ambient temperature, significantly enriched the modern physical chemistry and electrochemistry. Organizer of the Department of Organic Chemistry and its first head was a talented teacher, a famous scientist and founder of the Kiev school of organic chemists Professor S.M. Reformatsky. He taught courses in organic chemistry and analysis that went into his textbook "Basic Organic Chemistry". This book was reprinted from 1893 to 1930 17 times [16, p. 9].

Prof. MM Tikhvin worked at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the 1898-1911. He read the general and special / organic technology courses, supervised thesis and / special design, conducted classes in the laboratory organic chemistry. As a man honest and fair, he in 1911 in protest against the dismissal of three deans left a teaching job at the institute.
In 1902 it was established the Department of metallurgical production, headed by renowned scientist Professor V.P. Izhevsky. In the training of engineers, metallurgists, he highlighted the study of the theory of metallurgical processes. Designed V.P. Izhevsky atomic-molecular method for calculating the blast furnace process has been universally recognized and to this day is widely used in practice. For the first time in the world he has created of an electric rotary kilns. Prof. V.P. Izhevsky over the years in the KPI (1899-1926) trained many scientists and engineers, metallurgists such as Academician I.P. Bardin, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Y.V. Vasilyev, Professor M.P. Chyzhevsky et al. [16, p. 101.]

Eminent scientist Professor metallurgist M..P Chizhevsky, who worked at the institute from 1902 until 1903, has developed a method of iron nitrogen processing long before the foreign scientists.

Professor V.Y. Vasiliev taught at KPI 40 years. Even in 1912, he developed the original "wet" method of obtaining nickel from the ore, and in 1914 received the nickel pig iron, developed the theory of melting it with the use of so-called stable slag, which increased the productivity of blast furnaces by 10-15% and reduce the cost of coke on the 7- 16% [16, p. 10].
The first dean of the Agronomy Department was one of the giants of zoo technical science prof. M.P. Chirvinsky. Since the founding of the Institute, he headed the Department of animal science, and in 1905, after the restoration of autonomy of universities, became the first elected director of the institute. In said department he worked with such outstanding scholars as Professor E.P. Votchal, P.R. Slezkine, K.G. Schindler et al.

Prof. E.P. Votchal, the student K.A. Timiryazev headed during 30 years the Department of Botany, has created there the first-class research laboratory. Talented scientist nerd-physiologist, he was the founder of this branch of science, physiology of agricultural plants and Ukrainian school nerds physiologists. For many years E.P. Votchal lectured on plant anatomy and physiology, microbiology and general botany, supervised practical training in microbiology, plant anatomy and microscopic Botany [24, p. 191].

The Department of Plant long time was led by an outstanding expert in this field prof. P.R. Slezkine, who worked on the problems of soil fertility, fertilizer systems fields, agrochemical crops. For students of Agronomy Branch he taught courses in general agriculture.

In 1899 at the suggestion of V.L. Kirpichiov Council of the Institute issued a decision on the introduction of a mechanical and agronomic departments course design, construction and operation of agricultural machinery. It was invited the young mechanical engineer K.G. Schindler, who had experience in design and use of agricultural machinery and more than two years on probation abroad. For a long time he was head of the Kiev station testing of agricultural machinery and implements. School prof. K.G. Schindler became the leader in training for Agricultural Engineering. Prof. .K.G Schindler in 1910-1911 was dean of the Agronomy and mechanical department (10, 284].

So KPI from the very beginning of its existence had a team of highly qualified teachers, providing educational process belonging to the scientific and educational levels, and, as the newspaper "Russian vedomosty" said, "this institution immediately took appropriate and honorable place among Russian universities" [2, p. 383].