Naukovi visti NTUU “КPІ”. – 2010. – N 3

Anishchenko I.M., Gurinovich N.V., Mitropolskaya N.Yu., Klechak I.R.

Using Information Databases for the Study of Strains of Biotechnologically Valuable High Basidiomycetes

P. 5–9. Fig. 5. Refs.: 12 titles.

This paper aims to develop a relational database of the Culture Collection of Pileate Fungi. To that end, we elaborate an information system and a simple visible interface that may enhance the attributive data operation on strains of high basiodiomycetes. This system allows using the data on strains of the Collection and their biotechnological properties more effectively.

Antonenko L.O., Kuchma V.M., Krysyuk Yu.S.

The Infuence of Nutrition Sources on Growth and Antioxidant Activity of Mushrooms of Genus Coriolus Quel (Trametes Fr.)

P. 10–15. Fig. 2. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 22 titles.

In this paper, we study the growth and antioxidant activity of four basidiomycetes strains on a nourishing medium by adding 12 sources of carbon (mono-, di-, polysaccharidess, alcohols) and 8 sources of nitrogen (organic and inorganic nature). We determine the influence of carbon and nitric nutrition on concentration of mushrooms biomass of genus Coriolus and antioxidant activity of culture liquid. In addition, we specify the compounds of carbon and nitrogen, which provide the maximal accumulation of mushroom biomass and the highest antioxidant activity.

Gavrikova V.S., Ignatyk A.A., Chumak V.L.

The Influence of Polyhexamethylenegyanidine on Bioproduction Parameters of Young Fish

P. 16–20. Fig. 1. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 12 titles.

We present a series of research into the influence of various concentrations of polyhexamethyleneguanidine on bioproduction parameters of young fish. Our research results show high toxicity of polyhexamethyleneguanidine.

Gorobets S.V., Gorobets O.Yu., Dvoynenko O.K., Mykhailenko N.O.

Wastewater Purification from Cuprum (II) Ions by Magnetically Operated Biosorbent Using High-Gradient ferroMag­netic Fields

P. 21–25. Fig. 2. Refs.: 14 titles.

This paper highlights the method of purification from cuprum ions by using high-gradient magnetic fields. We devise the production method of high-gradient ferromagnetic matrices with dendrite structure and study its efficiency. We also show the difference between the efficiency of solutions purification by utilizing dendrite and dendriteless matrices. Crucially, we prove the higher efficiency of the dendrite matrix performance as compared to the dendriteless one. Finally, we demonstrate that the use of magnetically operated biosorbents and high-gradient magnetic separators allows effectively purifying working media from cuprum ions up to 98 %.

Pager O.М., Majdanjuk T.V., Todosiychuk T.S.

The Use of Ultra-Violet Radiation in Selection of Enzyme Complex Producer of Streptomyces

P. 26–32. Fig. 3. Tabl. 3. Refs.: 15 titles.

We investigate the influence of ultra-violet radiation on the biosynthetic ability of the culture of Streptomyces recifensis var. lyticus bacteryolytic enzyme complex producer. We demonstrate that this type of mutagen can be applied to selection of the strain with the high level of product synthesis. The results of the conducted mutagen processing of culture allow choosing two variants of culture – Str. recifensis var. lyticus Е96 and S101 which have the enhanced level of a target product synthesis by 1,5 and 2 times.

Solovyov S.O., Trokhimenko O.P., Obertynska O.V., Zholner L.G.

Adaptation to Cultivation Conditions in Vitro and Increase of Infectious Titres of Human Rotaviruses, Isolated on the Territory of Ukraine

P. 33–37. Fig. 6. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 10 titles.

In this paper, we isolate and adapt five strains of rotaviruses for cultivation conditions from children with acute intestinal infections in HEP-2 human cell culture. We characterize the isolated strains according to genotype and ability to increase the infectious titres during five consecutive passages. Crucially, we isolate the rotavirus strain, which has a special ability to adapt to cultivation conditions in human cell culture. This strain is promising for creating effective rotavirus vaccine for Ukrainians, as well as for developing diagnostic test-systems. Finally, we show the inability of the isolated strains to be cultivated in animal cell culture.

Shaptala V.V., Shulga N.M., Kigel N.F.

Selection of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Cheesemaking by Antagonistic Activity Concerning Technically Harmful Microflora

P. 38–41.

Tabl. 2. Refs.: 12 titles.

We examine the antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria concerning the main representatives of extraneous microflora and show that lactobacilli have the maximum level of oppression of the test cultures. In addition, we isolate two promising strains – Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus 3306, and Lactobacillus acidophilus 3123, which can be applied to cheesemaking, as well as determine their technological properties.

Barbash V.A., Trembus I.V., Gapon O.S., Shevchenco V.M.

Obtaining of Straw Pulps by Peracetic Pulping Method of Delignification

P. 42–49. Fig. 1. Tabl. 7. Refs.: 10 titles.

The paper studies the influence of the basic technological parameters of obtaining straw fibrous semi-finished products by the peracetic method of delignification. Using the method of full factorial experiment, we obtain the regression equations of producing straw fibrous semi-finished products. Furthermore, we determine main kinetic characteristics of the delignification process of wheat straw.

Vasiliev O.O., Muratov V.B., Duda T.I.

Calculation of Diamond Heat Capacity by its Spectroscopic and Elastic Cha­racteristics

P. 50–55. Fig. 4. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 17 titles.

We calculate the heat capacity of diamond based on the inelastic neutron scattering data and elastic characteristics of the crystal at the temperature range of the diamond phase existence. We analyze the diamond phonon spectrum and reasons for heat capacity anomaly at low temperatures (under 100 K). We show that due to thermal expansion at temperatures under 300 K, the input into heat capacity has values not exceeding the measurement error in current adiabatic methods.

Dontsova T.A., Alekseev O.F., Neboga T.I., Nagirniak S.V.

Selective Leaching of Carbonates from Ukrainian Phosphorites by Lactic Acid

P. 56–59. Fig. 1. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 8 titles.

We select the organic acid for pre-decarbonization of the Ukrainian low-grade phosphate raw material. Through experiments conducted, we determine that lactic acid is the most effective in this process. We also demonstrate the infrared spectra of the origi­-nal phosphate (Ratnovskiy  field), as well as of the phosphate treated with chlorine and lactic acid. They indicate that the intensity of stretch vibration, belonging to the carbonate ion of calcite, decreases after treatment with lactic acid phosphate.

Donchenko M.I., Bystritskyi S.V., Redko R.M., Schur N.A.

Electrodeposition of Nickel and Composite Nikel Diamond Coatings by Reversible Current

P. 60–66. Fig. 7. Tabl. 3. Refs.: 7 titles.

This study deals with the deposition of nickel diamond composite coatings on steel for producing abrasive and cutting tools. Based on the various sources, including previous research data, we choose the method of electrodeposition of coatings by a reversal current. We deduce the equations for calculating the current density in cathodic and anodic pulses. On the experimental side, we study the influence of these parameters on peak potentials and polarization characteristics of the process, as well as physical and mechanical properties of nickel binder and nickel diamond coatings. Finally, we show that the monopolar pulse current shouldn’t be used since it causes a marked increase in internal stresses of nickel as compared to the direct current.

Ivanenko I.М., Кlimchuk I.V., Lysenko A.О., Goba V.Ye., Strelko V.V.

Relation of Surface Chemistry with Properties of SKN Active Carbons

P. 67–72. Fig. 3. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 6 titles.

In this paper, we synthesize active carbon samples with various content of nitrogen and oxygen of heteroatoms, as well as surface functional groups. We determine the specific surface area and porosity of the obtained carbon, study its behaviour in the model oxide reduction processes, notably electrochemical oxygen reduction and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Relying on the data analysis, we characterize the impact of surface chemistry and porosity on the electron-donating ability of nitrogen and oxygen containing active carbons. We take the perspective that this carbon can be applied as a fuel cell electrocatalyst.

Izotov V.Yu., Gromadskyi D.G.

Optimization of Electrodes Polarization Component for Supercapacitors

P. 73–77. Fig. 3. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 7 titles.

The paper considers the dependence of supercapacitor inner resistance on thickness of electrodes polarization component in order to optimize the microporous structure of the activated carbon material, utilized for electrode production, with the structure of transport channels inside electrodes. Employing the tier model, we describe electrochemical processes, occurring in porous electrodes. We show that the nonlinear character of dependence of inner resistance on electrode thickness is connected with the resistance identified by the microporous structure of activated carbon material at electrodes thickness under 10 μm and the structure of transport channels inside electrodes at the thickness, which is more than 100 μm. We propose the methods of determining the optimal electrode thickness, whereby microporous material structure can be matched with transport channels.

Kirsenko T.V.

Stability of Gallium (III) Monothiocyanate Complex in Water and Water–Acetone Solutions

P. 78–82. Fig. 1. Tabl. 3. Refs.: 13 titles.

By employing the Benesi-Hildebrand spectrophotometric method with Cu (II) and Fe (III) as indicator ions in water and water-acetone media, we determine the stability of Ga (III) monothiocyanate complex. Crucially, we establish the interrelation between the complex stability and solvent properties (dielectric permittivity and non-water component concentration).

Kornilovych B.Yu., Iatsenko A.P., Kovalchuk I.A., Pavlenko V.M., Makovetskyi O.L.

Sorption-Reducing Treatment of Gro­und­water from Uranium Compounds

P. 83–87. Fig. 4. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 15 titles.

The paper considers the processes of sorption-reducing treatment of water polluted with uranium compounds by various active agents. Our research subject is groundwater selected from the hole near the tailing dump of waste of uranium ore processing from the East ore-dressing and processing enterprise situated near Zhovti Vody. To that end, we utilize the activated sludge of Bortnytska aeration station and Fe0 iron powder as active agents. Specifically, we show that the use of microbiological reducer – activated sludge – decreases ten-fold the concentration of uranium in treated water, but does not satisfy the current international normative requi­rements for the content of toxicants in groundwater.

Lysenkov E.А., Klepko V.V.

Study of the Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Processes of Ionic Association in Liquid Polymer Electrolyte Polyethyleneglycol – LiClO4

P. 88–93. Fig. 3. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 22 titles.

By using Fuoss–Kraus theory and the conductivity data, we study the ion association in polymer electrolyte based on polyethyleneglycol, lithium perchlorate and carbon nanotubes. We also determine that the filler addition decreases the aggregation in the polymer electrolyte, which leads to the increase in the number of free ions, as well as to the conductivity growth.

Linyucheva O.V., Buket O.I., Vashchenko O.M., Tatarchenko G.O.

The Influence of Auxiliary Electrode Polarization on Transient Processes in Amperometric Gas Sensors

P. 94–99. Fig. 8. Refs.: 5 titles.

This study proves that the mode of transient performance in amperometric sensor can clearly indicate the excessive polarization of auxiliary electrode as a root cause of unstable signal or long transition period. These findings allow determining a dramatic decrease in the contact area of consumables auxiliary electrode (potential determining material) with its conductive skeleton that causes the sharp rise in polarization.

Ryabtsev G.L., Mikulionok I.O., Oliynyk O.S., Maksymuk D.O.

Application of Pervaporation Techni­que to the Production of Mixed Fuel

P. 100–105. Fig. 5. Refs.: 5 titles.

The paper presents the flow charts, design of the membrane apparatus and provide recommendations for the industrial application of pervaporation to the production of mixed fuel, in particular to obtaining light petroleum fractions and anhydrous ethanol.

Obushenko T.I., Astrelin I.M., Tolstopalova N.M., Kopotun V.P.

The Solvent Sublation of Iron Ions from Low Concentration Solutions

P. 106–111. Fig. 5. Refs.: 20 titles.

This study investigates the regularities of solvent sublation of iron ions from the low concentration water solution (CFe3+ = 10 mg/L). We determine optimal conditions of this process (the pH, the molar ratio of Fe3+: SAC, where SAC is the surface-active compound, the process duration, the temperature, the speed of gas flow). Relying on the ion association theory, we propose the mechanism of solvent sublation.

Оvsienko О.L., Аlexeeva Т.М.

The Effect of Caesium Compounds on the Properties of the Low-Tem­pe­ra­tu­re Catalyst of Carbon Monoxide Con­verstion. Caesium Nitrate Promotion

P. 112–118. Fig. 3. Tabl. 2. Refs.: 10 titles.

This paper describes the effect of promoting Cs admixtures on the catalyst activity, selectivity, stability, crystal structure and morphology of Cu-Zn-Al- catalyst of low-temperature CO conversion. We also test two methods to introduce the promoter: into calcinated, as well as into the carbonate catalyst mass. We determine that the introduction of Cs in the amount of 1% and 3 % allows reducing the catalyst activity in a side reaction of methanol formation by 3 and 6 times. Caesium nitrate admixtures also reduce the catalyst activity in the target process of CO conversion in proportion to the promoter amount. Cs gives a negative sintering action on the crystal structure and thermal stability of the catalyst. Hence, promoting effect of Cs is connected with its influence on the catalyst phase composition.

Mokrousova O.R., Moraru V.N.

X-ray Diffractometry Investigations of Ion Exchangeable Modification of Montmorillonite by Cr (ІІІ) Compounds

P. 119–123. Fig. 6. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 18 titles.

The paper studies structural changes of Cherkasky montmorillonite as a result of its modification by Cr (III) compounds. By employing X-ray diffractometric method, we establish the expansion of mineral crystal lattice along c-axis and the formation of interlayer aqueous- and hydroxochrome complexes of octahedron structure. It allows obtaining mineral hydroxochrome filler of disordered structure with the enhanced specific gravity surface and adsorptivity.

Prokofyeva G.M., Sudarushkina T.V., Savicheva K.Yu., Srebrodolskiy V.Yu.

Technical Detergents for Cleaning He­lio­system Elements

P. 124–127. Fig. 5. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 11 titles.

This study demonstrates the possibility of introducing CF-10 surfactant into the technical detergent. We do the research into CF-10 - Ferrum (III) as a pollution ingredient interaction that can cause re-deposition on the surface. Finally, we determine the corrosion activity and foaming ability of CF-10.

Rudnitskaya A.A., Kamens’ka T.A.

The Study of Monocharged Ions Solvation in Nonaqueous Solvents by Stokes’ Law

P. 128–132. Fig. 3. Tabl. 1. Refs.: 8 titles.

Based on the boundary ionic mobility, we calculate Stokes’ and crystallographic radii of ions. We show that the difference between Stokes’ and crystallographic radii of ions depends on their ionic crystallographic size prior to its value, which is about 4,0∙10–10 m. Relying on these data, we conclude that bigger ions are not solvated in the given solvents. Finally, we determine that the anions have bigger salvation spheres than cations of the same crystallographic size. On the contrary, the solvation effect is more important for cations in aprotonic solvents.

Salnik V.G., Sviderskyy V.A., Chernyak L.P.

Application of the Modified Kaolin for Regulating the Properties of Water Disperse Systems

P. 133–137. Fig. 2. Tabl. 7. Refs.: 10 titles.

In this paper, we show the possibility of kaolin application, whose surface is modified by water-repellency, for regulating rheological and filtration properties of clay suspensions.

A.Ye. Shpak, Yu.О. Andriyko, N.Ye. Vlasenko, О.О. Andriiko

Solid-State Synthesis of Stable Substances Li–Mn–O System

P. 138–142. Fig. 5. Refs.: 18 titles.

By employing thermal, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis, we study chemical reactions, which occur at heating manganese oxide (MnO2) with lithium carbonate ( Li2CO3) on air. We reveal that only three thermodynamically stable substances – manganese (III) oxide (Mn 2O3), lithium manganate (Li2MnO3) and mixed oxide LiMn 2O4 with spinel structure – can be formed at 700–900 °C temperature ranges. Many other known substances of Li–Mn–O system are unstable under these conditions and cannot be obtained by solid-state me­thods.