Practical training period of students of higher educational establishments is carried out by means of training on enterprises, institutions and organizations according to the agreements signed by the higher educational establishment or its structural units which provide students with practical training.
Practical training period is an inseparable part of students’ preparation. The objective of the practical training period is to acquire knowledge of up-to-date methods, forms of organization and equipment on the basis of their academic discipline, to obtain problem-solving skills in real competitive and working environment, to develop systematic knowledge refreshment necessity and ability of practical application of knowledge
The types of practical training vary depending on an academic discipline and its objectives. The following types of practical training are distinguished: training internship, internship (production practices, operational practical training, design practical training, and commercial training), teaching practicum, scientific-research training and pre-graduation practical training.
All the types of practical training are enlisted in the curriculum and syllabus.
Training internship is carried out after a number of laboratory and practical course classes and it functions as a bridge between theoretical knowledge and its practical application. The objective of this type of training is to get student acquainted with the peculiarities of their academic discipline, to obtain essential professional skills due to general and specific academic disciplines. Training internship is the first stage of psychological and professional adaptation of a student in terms of real working environment. Educational practice provides a student with an opportunity to perform production tasks, to take responsibility for the fulfilled work, to develop participation spirit.
Main objectives of training internship are the following:
- to prepare students to internship;
- to deepen knowledge and to improve students’ skills, acquired in the process of education;
- to obtain skills and major professional skills due to the academic discipline of a student;
- to get student acquainted with organization and structure of enterprises institutions and the peculiarities of their future jobs;
- to motivate students;
- to foster awareness of professional skills by means of students’ involvement to a real working conditions.
One of the objectives of training internship may be to obtain work qualifications in a field that corresponds to the academic discipline.
Training internship can be conducted in laboratories, workshops, as well as in enterprises. Comprehensive training internship is usually carried out in working conditions. Subject area training shows some differences since students’ practical tasks involve the usage of knowledge of several academic disciplines. When performing practical tasks students acquire essential professional skills, improve their ability to use theoretical knowledge in practical conditions. Training internship is supervised by a member of academic staff or practical training period supervisor.
Internship (production practices, operational practical training, design practical training, and commercial training) is conducted on the 3 year of studying. In terms of professional activity internship is related to training internship since students work on real workplaces in working environment. But in terms of the work content, internship is considered to be a middle stage that functions as a key element for pre-graduation practical training. Student performs the duties of a middle manager.
All types of internship should be conducted on high-tech manufacturing enterprises, design agencies or other organizations with up-to-date equipment and organizational processes. The objective of internship is to deepen theoretical skills, acquired by students in the process of striding, get students acquainted with industrial processes, production processes, elaborate design documentation, improve working skills, gaining working experience, develop professional way of thinking, develop organizational skills, and collect material for the further course projects or course papers. Main objectives of internship are the following:
- to get students acquainted with production organisation and processes;
- to introduce rights and duties of a profession and to perform the duties of a corresponding profession;
- to get to know the quality assurance procedure on an enterprise and its organization of safety conditions;
- to find out about production organization and planning processes: business-plan, financial plan, modes of distribution, its competitiveness;
- to get students acquainted with ecological safety measures.
Main objectives of production practice are the following:
- to get students acquainted with organization and management of a department;
- to get students acquainted with existing standards, specification requirements, instructions on production organization;
- to get students acquainted with basic production processes;
- to get students acquainted with operation procedure and maintenance of measuring equipment and facilities;
- to get students acquainted with the theory of controlling measuring equipment operation for technological processes assessment;
- to get students acquainted with ecological safety measures.
The main objective of operational practical training is to gain experience of equipment operation organization, to deepen theoretical knowledge, to get acquainted with the practical side of all the equipment usage, to learn the safety measures guidelines, to learn how to repair, check, adjust and operate the equipment, to get informed about technical and economical indices of the equipment, to get acquainted with production organisation and processes, to deal with regulations and decrees.
During the practical training period students should make themselves aware of the Practical training subject matter of specialists, engaged in engineering activities of equipment maintenance; students should acquire post-qualification experience in the most important areas of the practice object and get full picture (understanding) of operational process, methods of equipment adjustment and verification, rules for compiling schedules for equipment maintenance and repairs, design and handover of equipment for repair, as well as acceptance after repair; troubleshooting methods, methods for organizing and collecting statistical information, operating modes of technical devices and reliability indicators, etc.
During operational practical training period, a student should be aware of:
- organising and management of subdivision activities;
- operating standards, technical specifications, regulations and instructions for equipment operation, test programs, paper work;
- operation regulations and maintenance of technical systems, measuring devices and other equipment;
- environmental compatibility issues and life safety.
The main purpose of design practical training period is to acquire design experience on engineering positions at design departments of enterprises. The tasks of design practical training are:
- sustaining and broadening of theoretical knowledge, obtained by students at the university while studying vocational disciplines;
- familiarization with the scope of the main work and researches, carried out at the enterprise or organization of practice placement;
- gaining experience of independent work at the workplace;
- acquirement of the advanced processes of technical systems and devices design in working conditions;
- student preparation for making independent decisions in design tasks at
- collection of necessary materials for the course projects implementation;
- formation of professional competences, related to future professional activities.
After design practical training period a student should know:
- the main stages of design process and production;
- main methods of technical systems design as well as their elements;
- the essence of standard design procedures;
- organization of technical systems design process;
- the interaction structure of departments and services during design process and production;
- the methods of analysis and solution of design engineering tasks.
Scientific-research practical training period is one of the elements of scientific-research training programmes for Masters and Doctors of Philosophy. The aim of the research practice is systematization, broadening and sustaining of professional knowledge, skills development to set goals, analyze the results and draw conclusions, gain and develop the experience of independent research work.
The main task is to formulate the experience in topical scientific problem studying, as well as to select the necessary materials for the dissertation implementation.
During the scientific-research practical training period student / graduate student:
1. should do well upon:
- patent and literature references concerning the topic worked on, in order to use them during qualification work performance;
- research methods and experimental work performance;
- maintenance instructions of research equipment;
- analysis and processing methods of experimental data;
- information technologies in scientific studies, programme products related to the professional activities;
- paperwork execution requirements;
2. should perform:
- analysis, systematization and generalization of scientific-technical information on the topic of research;
- theoretical or experimental research under set tasks;
- probability analysis of the obtained results;
- comparison of research results of the development object with domestic and foreign analogues;
- analysis of scientific and practical information of the obtained research results;
- analysis of scientific and practical relevance of the research results.
The choice of the practice placement during scientific-research practical training period and practical training subject matter are determined by the need to familiarize students / postgraduates with the enterprises and organizations activities, research establishments that carry out work and conduct research on the chosen topic.
Scientific-research practical training is carried out in the form of a real research project performed by a student / postgraduate under approved topic of scientific research and dissertation topic, taking into account the subdivisions interests and capabilities in which it is conducted. The practical training is conducted in accordance with a program of scientific-research practice and an individual programme of practical training, compiled by a student / postgraduate together with a scientific supervisor. Scientific-research practical training is conducted by a scientific supervisor.
During practice training period students/ postgraduates work on the dissertation is logically and sequentially organized, including the following stages: topic choosing, research problem elucidation, defining the object and the subject of the study; formulating of the research purpose and tasks; theoretical analysis of literature; selecting of necessary sources (patent materials, scientific reports, technical documentation, etc.); bibliography compilation; operational hypothesis formulation; choosing of research practical training base; research methods defining; conducting of the experiment; experimental data analysis; formalizing of the research results.
Research practical training gives students/postgraduates following anticipated competencies:
- knowledge of the main methodology provisions of the scientific research and the ability to apply them while working on the topic of the Master's thesis;
- ability to use modern methods of collecting, analyzing and processing scientific information;
- ability to present scientific knowledge on the research problem in the form of reports and reports publication.
Teaching practical training period is an integral part of scientific-research training programs for Masters and Doctors of Philosophy. It is conducted in the semester after students / postgraduates mastering a certain pedagogical discipline.
During teaching practical training period, the knowledge of Masters and postgraduate students on tertiary teaching is being deepened, scientific and methodological analysis skills of educational programs of separate academic disciplines are being developed and sustained; the ability to make the outline of classes, to give different kinds of in-class activities, to evaluate the results of one’s own activities and to improve communicative constituent of teaching activities appears.
Teaching practical training, using acquired theoretical basis, allows to develop students’ and post-graduate students’ creativity, initiative, activism, independence,
aspiration for constant self-improvement, to develop and implement in their educational process their own teaching methods and to use innovative pedagogical techniques, etc.
The purpose of teaching practical training is to involve students and post-graduate students in independent creative teaching activities, to form a system of pedagogical skills in conditions optimally close to real work in higher educational establishments; to master the knowledge and skills for organizing the process of studying academic disciplines by students, which are receiving training in the corresponding specialities. The main tasks of teaching practical training are:
- encouragement of university teacher developing of professionally
- consolidation, expansion and deepening of theoretical pedagogical knowledge of students and postgraduates on the basis of their use in a real pedagogical process;
- knowledge realization about modern methods and forms of teaching
activities through conducting in-class activities;
- mastering of conducting analysis methods of own teaching activities, professional competences and colleague’s performance;
- gaining the independent organization experience of the educational process
in the training group;
- familiarization with innovative technologies, working methods and forms in higher educational establishments;
- development and self-realization of creative abilities;
- self-examination and self-improvement skill mastering;
- the formation of moralities, communication ethics and self-improvement desire.
Teaching practical training is individually mentored by scientific supervisor. During teaching practical training period student / postgraduate should:
- get acquainted with the educational, organizational and methodological basis of the educational process at the Graduate Department;
- visit practical classes of their scientific supervisor and leading teachers of the Department several times;
- prepare and be ready to conduct one lecture and two practical classes, one laboratory work (computer workshop) and one pedagogical work for the students to give a demonstration of innovative methods and forms of educational work and implementation a personally-oriented approach.
Pre-graduation practical training period is the final practical training stage in the of students studying at Bachelor’s and Master’s degree. Before passing pre-graduation practical training period, the student should receive qualifying paper topic in order to sustain and deepen the knowledge of the academic discipline during practical training period, to collect the actual material and carry out the necessary research on the qualifying paper topic.
The crucial tasks of pre-graduation practical training period are:
- students’ practical training for independent work in corresponding specialists’ positions, deepening and sustaining of theoretical knowledge and skills in vocational disciplines, obtaining work experience with actual material referring to enterprise production activity and using it for the qualifying paper performance;
- formation of vocational work skills and acquisition of organizational work experience in a team;
- acquaintance with enterprise advanced equipment, technologies, labour management and production economics;
- material collection and preparation for qualifying paper. Head of Department is responsible for organizing, conducting and mentoring the practical training period.
Students' practical training is conducted at modern enterprises and organizations (exceptionally - at the university Departments) under the organizational and methodological mentoring of Department academic staff and the enterprise (organization) specialist.
Practical training subject matter and technology is determined by the practical training programme, which is developed up by the Department (Departments) and approved by the Director of the Institute / Dean of the Faculty. The types and forms of control are determined by the practical training programme in order to check the necessary skills well-formedness, student report requirements of the practical training programme and individual tasks implementation. The practical training report is defended by a student in front of committee, appointed by the Head of the Department. A student who has not completed practical training programme for valid reasons may be allowed to conduct practical training for a second time subject to the conditions specified by the institute / faculty. A student who was received a negative assessment for practical training is sent down from the university.
The results of each practical training period are discussed at Department’s meeting, and general conclusions of the practical training are drawn on the Academic Councils of the institutes / faculties at least once during the academic year.
While organizing and conducting the practical training period, the following documentation is kept:
- agreement with enterprises on the students practical training period;
- order of the university on students’ job placement and supervisors’ appointment during practical training period;
- steering documents for practical training period;
- practice record books and individual assignments for students to conduct the practical training;
- attendance record of students’ practical training;
- schedules for supervisor’s visiting the practical training place in order to mentor students’ work;
- student’s reports on the practical training programme implementation;
- information on the practical training credit.
Students’ reports are stored in the Department for one year, then they are written off and disposed in accordance with the procedures laid down. Student’s reports annotations about the practical training (except for closed topics) of at least 650 symbols are stored for at least one year and available for viewing.
Methodical guidelines on practical training (approved by the Methodological Council of the University on May 24, 2018, protocol No. 8) regularize the organization of conducting and summarizing of the students’ practical training period.
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