Academician Mykhailo Ilchenko and his scientific school. To the 80th anniversary of his birth

On September 13, a head of the Academic Council of Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Director of the Institute of Telecommunication Systems, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Laureate of the State Prizes in Science and Technology, Honoured Worker of Science and Technology of Ukraine Professor Mykhailo Yukhymovich Ilchenko celebrated his 80th birthday. All his conscious life is connected with the university, he is known and deeply respected by polytechnics of all generations. And not only them, because the name of M. Ilchenko and his scientific works are well known both in Ukraine and far beyond its borders, and without some of his developments, modern information and telecommunications technology simply would not be able to work. Moreover, in almost sixty years of work, he has established a scientific school that has taken a leading position in its field, and has educated many scientists and highly qualified professionals. "Kyiv Polytechnic" joins all the congratulations received by the jubilee and tells about the achievements of his scientific school.

The rector of Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Michael Zgurovsky, once remarked that his first research conducted since 1964 as a young scientist can be considered beginning of the establishment of Mykhailo Ilchenko's school, a graduate of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute. 

Indeed, any scientific school begins with a person, with a leader whose achievements are recognized by the scientific community of Ukraine and the world. It should be an authoritative scientist who not only produces innovative ideas, generates new directions of basic and applied research and is able to unite a team of like-minded people, but also develops strategic and general issues of methodology of scientific knowledge. Such a scientist is the founder of the scientific school "Microwave and digital TV and info- communications", scientific and technical developments which formed the basis of technical support for building the infrastructure of modern information society, Academician of the NAS of Ukraine, Professor Myhailo Yuhymovych Ilchenko.  

For 50 years of its activity within the walls of Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, this scientific school has gone from the development of elements, modules and devices to the deployment of telecommunication systems and networks, mostly applications.

Myhailo Ilchenko Scientific School demonstrates the long-term development of fundamental scientific achievements and ensures the implementation of their results in practice. The fundamental researches of interaction of microwave radiation with solid-state dielectric, ferrite and semiconductor structures carried out in it allowed to create a basis of applied developments on creation of functional devices of radio engineering and means of telecommunications. Systematic engineering research and development of radio-electronic and information-telecommunication software-technical complexes for various purposes, based on the use of microwave satellite and telecommunication technologies and computer equipment, solve urgent problems of broadband wireless access, information exchange in distributed systems and the problem of developments in information-telecommunication infrastructure of Ukraine. The use of solid-state functional devices developed in it made it possible in cooperation with industrial enterprises to ensure the production of a new generation of radio measuring equipment, digital integrated user access systems, radio relay and navigation systems.

In general, the development of the Ilchenko scientific school can be divided into three major stages. Each of them was associated with the development and creation of fundamentally new classes of devices and systems: the first - solid-state oscillatory systems made of dielectrics and ferrites (dielectronics); the second - miniature microwave transmitting and receiving devices; third - information and telecommunication systems.

The first stage occurred in 1964-1975. It was in those years that Mihailo Ilchenko began active scientific activity and became an outstanding scientist. The choice of scientific direction was dictated by life itself. During that period, in the field of high-tech armaments, the Soviet Union needed, among other things, to develop competitive electronic radar and reconnaissance systems. In addition, for its further development, radio electronics required the development of new frequency bands and miniaturization. 

The best scientific teams of the country were involved in the implementation of these tasks, including the staff of the Department of Radio Engineering of Kyiv Polytechnic, headed by the founder of the Faculty of Radio Engineering, Professor Volodymyr Ogievskyi. M. Ilchenko became one of the promising young scientists who started working on this topic. 

Ukrainian researchers from Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute understood that it was necessary to start with basic research of the level of physical processes, and only then to create radio-electronic structures for various purposes on their basis.

Fundamental scientific research conducted by Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute graduate M. Ilchenko led to the creation of a new class of solid-state oscillatory systems made of dielectrics and ferrites. He discovered, mathematically modeled and systematized the most general laws of interaction with electromagnetic fields of ultrahigh frequencies of ferrite and dielectric elements, which are located in different wave systems and have a resonant nature of this interaction. The main feature of his proposed approach is the definition of these patterns as functions of complex coupling coefficients, which he introduced due to the electromagnetic fields of the structures under study. Systematization of such regularities made it possible to predict the characteristics of the interaction of dielectric structures in different specific cases. 

The external characteristics of the systems were presented in the form of transmission or reflection coefficients. M. Ilchenko derived dozens of new formulas, which for the first time mathematically described the characteristics of resonators in different lines of transmission of electromagnetic waves. For the first time, the derived relations made it possible to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the physical effects of asymmetry of resonant characteristics, increased frequency selectivity, rotation of the plane of polarization of electromagnetic waves, the presence of poles of increased attenuation, the influence of higher types of electromagnetic waves, which are perturbed by resonators and do not propagate in the transmission lines, and others. 

As for the physical effects, some of them were discovered by M. Ilchenko. 

The identified patterns, the original formulas for the characteristics of specific systems, as well as the ratios for the communication coefficients gave the young scientist the opportunity to propose dozens of new technical solutions for resonant devices, optimize the design of a number of devices, and create methods for engineering calculation of new generation favorably differed from their predecessors by ten times better mass and size characteristics. 

The main results of scientific research of this period were published in several monographs, and the direction of use of dielectric structures in radio electronics was called "dielectronics". And Mihailo Ilchenko himself in 1967 defended his dissertation, became a senior researcher and, most importantly, received scientific recognition and confirmed his leadership as a research scientist, able to unite and lead a team of scientists. 

The second stage, which took place in 1976-1989, was a period of introduction of advances in dielectronics and the creation of new devices in the microwave range. During these years, M. Ilchenko's activity was devoted not only to scientific research, but also to the huge organizational and administrative work on the introduction of scientific developments in the production and defence of the Ukrainian scientific school of radio electronics, the development of our university.

In those years, Myhailo Yukhymovych worked on the creation of a new class of miniature solid-state devices, which, along with dielectric resonators, included active semiconductor devices (transistors, Gunn diodes, etc.). Their combined use made it possible to create a whole generation of miniature devices for microwave information systems for radio reconnaissance and satellite communications, developed in the interests of national defence. New technical solutions of dielectronics have also been used in the creation of civil information systems. Their large-scale implementation took place in the following decades. And, say, a dielectric resonator is today an integral part of every one of the hundreds of millions of parabolic antennas for individual satellite television reception around the world. 

In 1976, a branch research laboratory of ultrahigh-frequency solid-state electronics and radio-measuring equipment was established at the Department of TOR of the Faculty of Radio Engineering of Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute. A number of new solid-state devices based on a new element base, in particular, dielectric resonators, have been developed here. The head of the laboratory Professor M. Ilchenko together with a group of specialists from branch institutes in 1983 was awarded the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR in the field of science and technology. It was awarded for a series of scientific and practical works, which allowed to create and implement a new scientific and technical direction, based on the use of physical phenomena in dielectric materials with high temperature stability of their parameters. As part of this work, new dielectric materials were created, as well as problems of mathematical modeling of the interaction of dielectric resonators with ultrahigh-frequency fields were solved. For the first time in the world, composite dielectric materials with specified properties were synthesized and on their basis dielectric resonators for the operating frequency range 300-100 GHz with extremely high Q-factor were developed and put into serial production (the product of the value of the Q factor at the resonant frequency reached 100 000-200 000) and thermal stability at the level of + 2x10-6 in the temperature range from -60 to 70 C. On the basis of scientific and technical and design and technological developments in the field of dielectronics and microelectronics in 1977 was created and successfully tested a prototype of radio relay equipment "Electronics-communications" in the frequency range of 3.4-3.9 GHz for the new generation main radio relay communication lines.

In 1980, M. Ilchenko defended his doctoral dissertation at the Institute of Cybernetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and in 1982 he became a professor. The young but already experienced organizer of science attracted the attention of the university management, and in 1988 he was appointed vice-rector for research at Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, position which he held until 2020.

For the creation together with scientists and manufacturers of the electronic industry of the USSR of devices with qualitatively new characteristics and their introduction into the electronic equipment of satellite telecommunications of special purpose, M. Ilchenko was awarded the title of laureate of the USSR State Prize in Science and Technology in 1989.

Extremely important set of performed research, research and development work significantly influenced the final result of many enterprises of the military-industrial complex of the country, as they determined the main parameters and combat readiness of complex electronic systems "Union", "Progress", "Horizon". "Zvezda", "Corundum", "Crystal", "Shower", quality and reliability of space and intersatellite communication systems "Vega", "Venus", a unique onboard radiometer in the frequency range 22-118 GHz and a radiometric receiver in the frequency range 94 GHz for adjusting the RATAN-600 system and studying the relic background of the Universe.

On the basis of the conducted complex of research and development work ultra-low-noise and low-noise receiving-amplifying and converting devices in the range of extremely high frequencies for providing radio engineering systems of civil and special purpose were developed and introduced into production. Developments of receiving and converting complexes based on gallium arsenide technology and dielectronics have had a huge impact on the development of radio electronics, radio astronomy, long-distance and inter-satellite communications, satellite television and strengthening the state's defence capabilities.

From 1988 M.Yu. Ilchenko as Vice-Rector for Research at the National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" introduces new forms of organization of university science, works on the establishment of a number of research institutes, design bureaus, engineering centers, innovation structures. 

With his direct participation, a number of important projects have been implemented at the university. In particular, the State Polytechnic Museum, scientific and technological parks "Kyiv Polytechnic" were created, the university became national and received the status of research, etc.

The third stage of scientific and organizational activity of M. Ilchenko, which began in the 90s of the last century, can be described as a period of maturity, research and creation of complex telecommunications systems, activity and growth of students of Professor M. Ilchenko and continuation of his huge work on the development of Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute. Already in 1992 he was awarded the title of "Honoured Worker of Science and Technology of Ukraine".

Since the 90s, when in the conditions of the collapse of the USSR scientific and technical developments for the needs of the military complex almost stopped and the problem of overcoming the significant lag of our state in modern means of telecommunications became especially noticeable, under the leadership of M. Ilchenko several national scientific and technical programs on telecommunications were carried out.

M. Ilchenko is still actively working as a scientist and creator of new technical systems. In particular, he is the chief designer of information systems developments, which are commissioned by the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine. 

His personal involvement also includes the creation of new competitive telecommunications information systems based on microwave technology. Evidence of the fundamentalism of scientific results of M. Ilchenko is, in particular, the fact that he previously created the scientific basis for the construction of solid-state dielectric filters which make it possible to use these devices for industrial purposes. Such dielectric devices have been built into mobile radio equipment for more than ten years and are used in receivers for determining the location of objects on Earth GPS systems, which are mass-produced by the company "Orizon-Navigation" in Cherkasy region.

In 1990 Myhailo Yukhymovych organized and headed the Research Institute of Radio Electronics (since 2000 - Research Institute of Telecommunications at Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute), which develops modern telecommunication systems and technologies related, in particular, to solving problems of broadband wireless access, digital television, etc.

Advances in microwave technology, including dielectronics, are also effectively implemented in domestic developments of information microwave systems of integrated service such as MITRIS, the practical implementation of which allows to significantly improve the telecommunications support of state informatization. Such developments made with the participation of M. Ilchenko, are successfully used in Ukraine, Georgia and other countries. Creation of perspective radio telecommunication systems was noted in 2000. The Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine awarded M. Ilchenko with Lebedev award, and on April 13, 2012 M. Ilchenko became a full member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the Department of Informatics, speciality "Telecommunication Systems". 

Developments in recent years relate to modern microwave information systems that solve the problems of broadband wireless access, including the use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz range and nanotechnology in infocommunication systems. Recent publications sometimes even compare the pace of implementation of wireless technologies with the revolutionary changes in the technical means of informatics in the implementation of computer information networks. The combination of advantages provided by the optimal use of microwave technologies and computer equipment, gave the opportunity to a team of specialists from Kyiv Polytechnic, Glushakov Institute of Cybernetics NAS of Ukraine, UkrSat company and Orizon-Navigation enterprise under the scientific coordination of M. Ilchenko to perform a series of developments aimed at fulfilling the tasks provided for by three decrees of the President of Ukraine, four resolutions of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The solution of these problems ensured the creation and implementation of domestic information and telecommunication systems for informatization of customs, tax and border services, banking, improvement of information support on the roads of Ukraine, improvement of navigation systems, information support of public authorities and more. The implementation of the results of this cycle of developments in 2004 was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology.

Myhailo Yukhymovych Ilchenko's scientific achievements became the basis for his organization of new departments, scientific and educational institutes at Kyiv Polytechnic, and provision of high-quality training of specialists in the field of telecommunications. In addition, his school has provided education for several generations of professionals in the information and telecommunications industry: more than 20 doctors and candidates of sciences, about 1500 bachelors, masters and specialists are trained here. 

S.O. Kravchuk, deputy Director of ITS, Head of the Department of Telecommunications, Professor, Ph.D. 
L.O. Urivsky, Head of the Department of Telecommunication Systems, Professor, Ph.D.