Expansion of the training scale of specialists exacerbated personnel problem, required to improve the work of the teaching staff. At that time at the Institute there were worked such outstanding scientists: academicians K.K. Hrenov, N.N. Dobrokhotov, F.P. Belyankin, B.S. Lisin, Corresponding Members of the Academy of Sciences USSR V.E. Vasiliev, V.A. Izbekov, S.I. Tetelbaum, A.D. Kovalenko, Professors I. T. Shvets, V.I. Tolubinsky, A.D. Nesterenko, K.I. Vashenko, S.S. Rudnik, G.S. Pisarenko, A.V. Orlovsky, A.S. Smogorzhevsky, N.A. Kilchevsky, M.A. Kontakion and others. They headed the Department, conducted research and teaching work, most of them were alumni of the institute.
However, there was an urgent need for scientific and pedagogical personnel to fill the posts of full-time heads of the department, there were not enough candidates to fill the post of associates. In April 1946 there were 52 heads of the department, only 18 of them were doctors of technical sciences, on 95 post of associate professor they were worked only 41 PhD. At the beginning of 1950 there were already in Institute 365 teachers, including professors - 32 (8.8%), associate professors - 85 (23.3), senior teachers - 55 (15.5), Teaching assistants – 193 (52.9). Have a doctorate - 22 (6%), the candidate scientific 112 people (30.7%) [23, p. 22]. Teaching staff was mainly replenished with the people without academic degrees and knowledge, and much less - PhDs and professors. It was significantly decreased, however, the number of part-time teachers.
The expansion of graduate school contributed to the improvement of the training of the teaching staff. It should be noted, that it also prepared personnel for other universities of the country. In 1945-1946, 13 graduate students, teachers and staff defended their dissertations, among them B.E. Paton, who in December 1945 successfully defended his thesis on the welding process (now the director of the Institute of Electric Welding of E.O. Paton NAS of Ukraine, President of NASU) [ 14, p. 19].
It should be noted that the possibility of such forms of training of the teaching staff as doctoral and post graduate was underutilized. In 1946-1950 only three people defended their doctoral thesis, PhD - 33 people. There was the lack of appropriate laboratory facilities needed for experimental studies. Departments not actively attracted talented youth to graduate school, especially one that had experience in production and engineering work. Moreover, the established plans of admission to postgraduate studies are often not implemented. So, the plan of admission to postgraduate in 1947/48 made by only 40% [24, p. 92]. In 1949/50 18 vacancies were filled only with 14 people, and in 1950/51- 12 people. There was on one application from the departments of radio, broadcasting equipment, iron and steel, metallurgy, steel, foundry, heat treatment, mine construction [22, p. 144]. Only in 1951 the admission plan to graduate in the whole institute was made, but the problem of radical improvement of a postgraduate course, in terms of academic qualifications of teaching staff, and for the following years remained a priority.
In the postwar years there was performed a systematic view of curricula, preparation of program material for individual kindred disciplines. Only from October 1947 to January 1948 there has been revised and made more than 70 training programs [21, p. 40].
Work on updating the curriculum intensified in connection with the establishment in October 1949 Methodological Council. During 1949/50 150 programs of the theoretical courses were compiled and the program on industrial practice was fully updated. In 1950-51 more than 200 training programs were reviewed and updated. At the same time the unification of curricula was carried out In 1948/49 first-year students were transferred to a 5.5-year period of study, while the third - fifth courses studied under the old five-year plans [22, p. 114]. This discrepancy in the curricula had a negative impact on the educational process. The strengthening of the general mode of operation of the Institute, in particular, streamlining accounting of students presence on the classes, content and timetable have a great importance for improving the effectiveness of training activities. They were introduced student’s record book, control over retake exams and the like.
Of course, the consequences of war, devastation, affected in the early postwar years the overall preparation of students. The preparatory department, and then the training courses were not able to significantly improve the quality of students' knowledge, as evidenced by the results of the examinations. Almost half of the students were studying at the "satisfactory", and more than 6% - extremely poor, which caused a large "drop-out" of students. During 1946-47 for various reasons 743 students were expelled from the Institute (of whom more than half - freshmen), and in 1947/48 - 518. They were particularly disappointing the results of examinations on heat, mining and metallurgical faculty. At the last due to shortfalls those stydied who could not stand the competition to other universities and other departments [25, p. 2]. Therefore, in this period, the Institute administration focused on the organization of work and improving the methodology for conducting all kinds of classes. It assisted students who had a break from training, especially demobilized from the Soviet Army. Until the middle of 1945/46 579 of such students were admitted [26, p. 23]. Especially for them it was organized advisory work in the evening to conduct additional studies. A lot of work in this direction made by the chair of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, strength of materials, foreign languages.
Limitations of the library collection - especially the lack of textbooks, manuals had negative impact on the learning process. Only one textbook on general education and social sciences accounted for five or six people, and in some cases they did not exist. Professors and teachers paid much attention to inculcate students with the skills of independent work, its proper organization. Departments set amount of homework, the number of calculations and drawings, and dean’s offices planned their uniform distribution throughout the semester. It was planned to have two colloquia for each discipline. In academic groups once a month production meetings were held in the presence of the dean's office and departments representatives. They analyzed the progress of the student curriculum, submit proposals for improving the organization of independent work. For academic excellence, the best course projects, students are encouraged with increased scholarships, prizes, staged exhibitions of student work [18, p. 16].
Departments organized lectures on methods of independent work of students, which attracted leading scientists. In 1947 at faculty meetings and the Scientific Council there were heard the following reports on the organization of educational process: "Methods of presentation of some issues of thermodynamics" (prof. M.A. Kichigin), "Methods of teaching the course" Theory of chillers "(prof. I. I. Chernobylsky ), "The methodology of the course design for the city networks" (prof. G.M. Gorodetsky), "Methods of manufacturing practices and electrical networks and sub-systems" (doc. S.E. Khodorov et al. [27, p. 40]. Preparation and discussion of reports on methods of educational process organization broadly practiced also later.
1947. There was a campaign to "fight against cosmopolitanism" that was taken often distorted forms. This noisy campaign was present also in the Institute. However, it was also held useful work to promote the achievements of Soviet science and technology: to enter teaching of the history of technology, established the Department of the History of Technology, led by Assoc. A. Y. Golyan-Nicholsky. The department carries out significant work in preparation for the publication of the works devoted to Russian scientists and their contribution to world science. Already in 1950/51 they were printed the following works: M.A. Kilchevsky, T.V. Putyata, B.M. Friedman "The role of Russian scientists in the development of mechanics", A. Y Golyan-Nicholsky "M.E. Zhukovsky ", A.I. Astakhov" Innovators of Chemical Science and Industry "and" Lomonosov - the father of modern chemistry "Sh.G. Gordeladze "K. C. Tsiolkovsky "et al. [22, p. ON].
Positive changes have been occurred in the organization of training and industrial practices. Students had the practice on 49 enterprises of the country, including Moscow and Gorky car plants, Leningrad and Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Plants, Bereznyakovskaya Chemical Company and others. More than 65% of the students performed their tasks of industrial practices on the "very well" and "good" [18, p. 16].
Unabated attention was given to the military training of students at the military department. Here reserve officers of communications and automotive troops were prepared. Only in 1946 the military department consisted of 1,320 students, of whom more than 70% had military training high marks. In addition to the implementation of the curriculum, the military department prepared instructors from shooting, snipers, which corresponded to the needs of maintaining the country's defense at a high level [18, p. 27].
|year||Present at the examinations, %||Passed all the examinations %||Passed examinations, %|
|«very well», «well»||«unsatisfactory»|
Work of the staff of the Institute was proved fruitful. It was significantly raised the level of teaching, improved the academic performance. This is evidenced by the results (in%) of spring examinations given in Table. 1 [22, p. 178].
At the end of 1945 it was resumed publication institute's newspaper "Soviet student", which highlighted the activities of the collective. Since the beginning of 1949, this newspaper, entitled "For a Soviet engineer" has been published regularly. A former soldier L.A. Radchenko headed the editorial board. From 1 January 1949 to 29 June 1950 there were published 37 issues of the newspaper. On the pages of it there were raised questions of educational work, communication, science and production covered the social life of the faculties and groups.
A research work and involving in it students had great importance for improving the quality of training. In the early postwar years, this work focused mainly on the solution of problems of restoration of the national economy, which was reflected in the state budget and contract issues. Among the problems that have been developed at the expense of the state budget were: improvement of technological processes in mechanical engineering (prof. S.S. Rudnik), raising the technical level electrical instrument (prof. A.D. Nesterenko), electrical control machine tools (prof. M.M. Vasiliev), automation issues (prof. I.I. Greben), the scientific study of development of local stations in the USSR (prof. A.V. Orlovsky), wireless power transmission (prof. S.I. Tetelbaum), improved radio receiving equipment for the purpose of reduce radio interference (prof. N.P.Vollerner), an increase of quality indicators of heating equipment (Professor M.A. Kontakion and M.A. Kichigin), thermal processes in jet engines (prof. I. T. Shvets), the study of local ceramic raw materials and its use as a building material (prof. B.S. Lisin), improving the technology of electrical production (prof. M.M. Voronin), improving the efficiency of heating equipment industries (prof. M.M. Dobrokhotov) [28, p. 83].
In addition to state budget, members of the Institute carried out contract issues. It was not only technical assistance to enterprises and organizations in the form of consultations, surveys, expert assessments, analyzes, etc., but also the development of methods for solving important scientific problems to raise production. Only in 1946 there were signed agreements of state budget totaling about 1 million rubles. [1, p. 60]. With the 97, completed in 1947, 32 have been implemented in the industry, including 18 state budget, 14 -contractuals [21, p. 93].
All scientists already had a connection with production, they are more likely to enter into cooperation agreements. They are supposed to give lectures at the enterprises of new technology, expertise and consultation on its implementation, the participation of employees in the departments of the factory production and technical meetings, training engineers, foremen and workers by organizing special schools, read a series of lectures, attracting factory workers in speeches the institute on the use of new technology, joint development and research of production issues. The first such agreements were appeared in 1948-1949. For example, the agreement dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Assoc. S.A. Kartavov with the workers of the Kiev machine-tool plant of Gorky Kobylyansky and Lopay of boring exact holes in details. Scientists have made calculations, and workers used them in practice, bypassing the long way of administrative red tape. At the same faculty the Department of Manufacturing Engineering also cooperated with the industry. Based on estimates made by prof. S.S. Rudnik, turner factory "Red excavator" VK Seminsky improved methods of high-speed processing of metals. At the same time, employees of the department have assisted companies in the implementation of advanced methods of work, contributed to the preparation of highly skilled workers on high-speed cutting. Department of welding production worked with the Gorky Automobile Plant, the plant "Uralmash", "Red Sormovo" Novokramatorsk engineering. Research topics of the department were based on the needs of the industry, which provides a quick introduction of scientific research into production [29, p. 218].
Students, especially of senior courses in scientific and special departments, were involved in the scientific and technical work. The main form of their participation in the research work in the postwar years were scientific groups, on the basis of which in April 1946, the institute was formed student scientific and technical society. At the time of creation it had nine sections, joined 30 clubs in the field and about 500 students [30, p. 16]. Its sections were led by the scientists of the institute.
Students Scientific and Technical Society (SSTS) in 1946 held the first student scientific and technical conference. Reports of students Poltavtsev ("Study of kinematics and dynamics of soil cutter"), Gerashchenko ("Heat transfer during boiling"), Kovalev ("Lightweight refractories from local materials") Romanchenko ("Radar reviews from the Moon") showed a fairly high engineering training, the ability to analyze the phenomenon, to conduct independent research and introduced an element of novelty in the work [28, p. 154].
SSTS built its activity towards specific assistance industry. VIII Student Conference was attended by young innovators Kiev enterprises. SSTS established and maintained communications with the best companies in Kiev. So, the students of the Faculty of Mechanical conducted certification of hydraulic gear cutting machine to plant of Gorky, and students of the Faculty of welding developed and implemented soak electrodes in order of the factory "Red excavator."
In 1948 the collective of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. For contribution to the training of highly qualified specialists and in connection with the anniversary of the Institute was awarded the highest state award - the Order of Lenin. High awards were won by a group of employees KPI, in particular director of the Institute prof. A.S. Plygunov, Professors V.E. Vasiliev, K.I. Vashenko, S.S. Rudnik.
In 1950 Institute has prepared more than 500 engineers, including the first graduates of Mining Engineers. During the post-war five years the Institute has trained for the national economy about 2 thousand specialists.
In 50s the training of engineers was intensified. Rapid growth in the number of students promoted by the fact that in certain specialties were introduced accelerated training of engineers from among persons who graduated from college. At the beginning of the 1953-54 in high school, there were 402 such students, 1956-57- 789, including mining faculty – 142, Chemical Engineering - 164, Radio - 433 Electrical Engineering - 50 [22, p. 261].
. The training of the specialists who studied and worked at the same time was accelerated. This causes an increase in demand for specialists in connection with scientific and technological progress, which has stimulated the desire of young people to acquire the latest knowledge. For students who have studied in this system, there were created favorable conditions for production - they are exempt from the evening changes, obtained leave during the sessions, had practice in the workplace, as much as possible were sent to work on the chosen specialty. Since 1952, for all specialties except philology, there were abolished entrance examination in a foreign language, making it easier for admission to college.
On the basis of the correspondence department in the KPI in 1953 was opened the Correspondence Department, which included the students of the training and consultation center-Union Correspondence Polytechnic Institute. At the beginning of the 1955/56 the correspondence faculty enrolled 1,172 students. In 1954/55 at the Institute for evening classes began training engineers who are educated in engineering in the field of electrification of industry and mechanical engineering [31, p. 6].
Subsequently, there have been significant changes in the proportion of students who have studied full time and those who studied and worked . When the relative stability of admission to full-time education the admission on correspondence and evening forms grew with a faster rate. In the late 50s from 12 thousand students, 42% were part time studing. On the basis of the evening department it was established in 1958 an independent department of the evening, which had an enrollment of 590 students (seven specialties), 1959-60 - 1449, including in the first year 667 people [32, p. 127].
The further development of part-time and evening courses has been adversely affected by the serious shortcomings of the whole system of specialist training on the job. Finished high school, only 15 - 20% of the time students finished the education in the institute. The system of evening and correspondence education has not been properly ajusted, classes were held, usually by part-time lecturers, which led to a decrease in the quality of training.
In order to improve distance education in Ukraine in 1960 there were established the general engineering faculties. According to the provision the higher education was obtained in two stages: the first - general technical training in the first three courses of unified curricula for all technical specialties, the second - special training. GEF unified curriculum covers 15 specialties. At GEF most part-time students had an opportunity to attend lectures, seminars, workshops work, perform laboratory work.
In 1960 there were created GEF KPI in Chernihiv, Zhytomyr, Novo-Volyn. October 1, 1961-62 there were 4253 part-time students, including Chernigov GEF - 760, Zhytomyr - 707, new-Volyn – 332, on GEF with KPI - about 1,400 students. In addition, at the undergraduate correspondence faculty they were enrolled 1,046 people [34, p. 13].
Experience has shown that the GEF only partially paid off. The development of this form of training was constrained by the lack of facilities, especially in the branches, the lack of qualified teachers, poor communication with the base department.
The Institute was undergone during this period significant changes. For example, in March 1952 Engineering Physics Department was abolished, physics of dielectrics and technical electronics became the specialties of the radio department and specialty Engineering Physics - metallurgical [35, p. 4]. These departments should prepare engineers for technical electronics, physics of dielectrics, powder metallurgy of Metal. In 1952/53 it was also canceled Engineering Faculty of Education and its students transferred to the Mechanical Department.
There were changes also in the leadership KPI: Associate Professor A.S. Plygunov in 1952 was granted a doctorate, prof. V.N. Gridnev was appointed as the director. In 1955, after a brief tenure prof. I.T. Shvets, A.S. Plygunov was re-appointed as the director.
A significant increase in the number of students led to a sizeable expansion of training and production facilities of the Institute. Through the efforts of the collective in 1951 was put into operation in 1200 m2 of new training areas. It was put into operation a boiler Chemical Corps, gas control distribution substation, substation low pressure gas. In the Chemical Corps the ventilation equipment and the replacement of the central steam heating water system began work. It was started the construction of the building of the radio department s, re-structure hostel number 1 and a new dormitory for 550 seats. To 1953 in the main building it was commissioned 3852 m2, which allowed to open in radio faculty seven new laboratories, metallurgical faculty – two, heat faculty - one [37, p. 298].
In 1954/55 the restoration works on all objects of the Institute were completed. The main building the steam heating water was replaced. It was completed the construction of a dormitory for 550 seats and freed 580 m2 area formerly occupied by the hostel workers' Kiivvuzbud ", it was completed construction of a residential 60-apartment building on the street Nikolsko- botanical, residential 24-apartment building on campus, intended for professors and teachers. In the order of the university passed the building of educational building kinoinzhenernogo Institute and the student hostel for 600 places. Expanded laboratory facilities of the Institute, was opened isotope laboratory and film lab theoretical foundations of electrical engineering, instrumentation and computing machines et al. [39, p. 10].
At the end of the 50s the position of post graduate in the institute was complicated, admission plans were not performed. In 1959 78 applications were filed for 85 seats, and enrolled in graduate school only 63 people, among them 38 - with the job. More efforts are needed to rebuild the work of departments in accordance with the requirements, refer to the preparation of the teaching staff in graduate school. In 1961 in the post graduate of the Institute there were 171 post-graduate student within 38 specialties , including 93 working people. Most graduate students preparing for radio and electrical, mechanical, metallurgical and chemical-technological faculty [42, p. 150].
Successful post-graduate studies, further teaching work, doctoral, and after its cancellation - sabbaticals young scientists to complete doctoral theses, caused a significant change in the quality of teachers. By the beginning of the 1960-61 they were worked at the institute 654 full-time teachers, including professors LP (4.8%), 203 associate professor (31%), 96 senior teachers (14.6%), 325 teachers and assistants (49.6%), in including 28 doctors (4.2%) and 286 candidates of sciences (40.9%), as a whole over the past decade faculty has almost doubled. About half of the departments (45%) were headed by teachers with advanced degrees of doctors and candidates of sciences [32, p. 28].