Ukraine deindustrialization knowledge-intensive due to lower education
In today's competitive world level of development of any country is determined by its created knowledge-based goods and services in the international division of labor. Obviously, the content of GDP from exporting one kilogram equivalent "iPhone" is much higher than the export of one kilogram of iron, chemical fertilizers or grain. The high level of knowledge-intensive economy provided the relevant training of human capital of the country, primarily in the component engineering, physical and mathematical education. That is, for countries that are fighting for their "place in the sun" irrefutable formula is: "What are the people in the country in terms of critical knowledge and skills to achieve such a transformation and the country is capable of."
This year's entrance campaign to higher education showed that education, our country is now moving towards opposite is what walks the civilized world. The results reflected a number of deep contradictions and problems that accumulated over the years in both the economy and society of Ukraine and in training.
The problems of the national education system can be divided into objective and subjective.
Objective problems due to the fact that during the years of independence Ukraine wealth production system and the system of advanced science and education were separated each other, so that the latter does not become the main engine of the economy and society. As a result, all these years there was a steady process of de-industrialization of the economy, lowering the prestige of engineering work, reducing the need for complex knowledge-based acquisition of knowledge, especially in the physical and mathematical and engineering components.
This "strain" value system led to significant loss of quality in the training of productive human capital, humiliation and exclusion from the country's top media engineering and science knowledge. The main losses are:
- The decline in the mass measuring natural training in secondary school, especially in physics, mathematics and chemistry. For example, only 40% of first-year students of the Kiev Polytechnic who had high scores UPE Physics, University withstand the requirements of this discipline during the first session, respectively - 50% in mathematics.
- Disorientation young Ukrainian who, unlike their peers from advanced countries do not see their future in the industry, natural science and engineering. Ukrainian applicants mostly dream replenish ranks of managers, lawyers, financiers, employees, fiscal authorities and other representatives of non-manufacturing or service jobs.
- Holding the Ministry of Science and Education of Ukraine unclear state policy in the field of training. This departure from the first priority the needs of basic industries and take into account only the wishes of students and their parents in the formation of the state order. The consequence of this approach was the results of this year's admissions campaign when MES has formed a list of recommended for enrollment at the university, found that in a set are essential for economic development and strengthen security of physical and mathematical and engineering areas of training proved to be a failure. In particular, the initial state order (at the beginning of July 2015) the direction of "Physics" performed by 54%, the field of "Applied Physics" by 51%, the field of "Mathematics" by 81%, with 28 engineering directions, following the structure of the basic industries of Ukraine - an average of 70% (see. table).
- Closing staffing shortages in basic industries (machine building, energy, aviation, space missiles, chemical, metallurgical and other) and Natural Sciences of Ukraine in 2020 (as a result of systematic errors in the formation of the state order in 2015). Even now, in 2015, the country's leading technical universities provide basic needs above industries for engineering staff only at 70-75%. Personnel shortage will increase significantly in 2020, when, of course, if the government Ukraine will plan to develop the national economy mainly due to the high-tech industry, and not continue to build up debts of state (more on this - in the study, "Forsyth economy Ukraine" http: // wdc. org.ua/sites/default/files/Foresight2015-short-UA.pdf).
- In this situation, issued confusing statements MESU heads of state further departure from the practice of state order for training in universities of Ukraine. Assuming that public order is a state policy in the field of training of the economy and society, not away from it will ensure the systematic nature of the development. The calculation only on the free choice of applicants for future professions in a society where the prestige of engineering and science significantly reduced, leading to deepening imbalances between production and non-production areas and further decline of the country.
Subjective problems whose solution depends on the educational system and above all of higher technical educational institutions are the following:
- The technical university is a slow modernization trends and specialties of engineering training (and often not performed at all). Given the accelerated global trends and requirements of the labor market, it lays the foundation for further decline in the domestic economy.
- Weak fundamentalization learning content for most engineering areas and specialties.
- Low knowledge-based student learning, which is mainly made not on the basis of the latest scientific advances in the relevant field of expertise, and on the basis of scientific results obtained decades ago.
- Unconditional almost religious glorification system testing (analysis of strengths and weaknesses Ukrainian testing - a separate issue) and the rejection of any other approaches to the selection of young people to universities in Ukraine. On the one hand, "froze" further improve the system testing, on the other - has reduced insurmountable barriers between higher and secondary schools, destroying the pre-university preparation of students, teacher humiliated authority and schools has intensified the phenomenon of mindless "coaching" youth through informal tutoring system. None of the ardent supporters of UPE in Ukraine are not concerned with the question why the best universities in the world are gaining replenish their own methods. What happened to these universities if they received decades freshmen template prepared and evaluated by the method insensitive to human and creative abilities similar to exams for driver's license? Fans testing appealing to arguments about corruption in education, not even suggesting that in Ukraine there are universities, which own the highest achievements and prestige are more important than any petty gain.
Thus, at the time of treatment of serious illnesses education. Recipes are simple. First of all - raising the prestige and social security school teacher and university lecturers, support of scientific schools universities from critical areas of training and research, to strengthen teaching and laboratory facilities of educational institutions at all levels, replacing them with training programs for those who teach students and students think and solve non-standard problems, and not just to learn by heart formulaic solutions.
Substitution of these obvious steps noisy pseudoreforms in form but not in content reduces media in Ukraine sophisticated high-tech knowledge and rejects it on the sidelines of progress.
Data on admission to 1st year leading technical and classical universities of engineering, physical and mathematical training areas in 2015
|№||Field of study code||Name of field of study||Number of processed Universities||GPA||Competition||Posted claims||Number of budget places||Recommended for enrollment||Failure of state order||%|
|1||6.040106||Ecology, Environmental Protection and Balanced Nature||77||142,11||7,60||10022||1319||1190||129||90,22|
|6||6.050202||Automation and Computer Integrated Technologies||40||138,71||8,65||9511||1099||896||203||81,53|
|19||6.050802||Electronic devices and systems||18||134,30||6,24||1790||287||220||67||76,66|
|22||6.050902||Radio Electronic devices||17||131,91||4,79||1608||336||218||118||64,88|
|24||6.051001||Metrology and Information Measuring Technologies||21||121,31||6,31||1262||200||120||80||60,00|
|27||6.051101||Aircraft and rocket engineering||6||132,78||3,68||769||209||147||62||70,33|
|32||6.051501||Publishing and printing business||11||147,10||7,02||1263||180||152||28||84,44|
|In all:||14757||10567||3765||Avarage: 71,4|