Engineering and Civil Purposes
During the years of World War II an unheard competition of mind's power and scientists' and engineers' talents whom are the arms' creators of the warring parties. Germany changed the tanks' design three times. The Head of General Staff, who is the first deputy minister of defense, Marshal of Soviet Union Zakharov Matthew described domestic tanks' developments in this way: "The T-34 is the result of the talented designers group's hard work that is led by M.I. Koshkin, HF - design team is headed by ZY Kotin. German engineers not only failed in producing of anything like the Soviet tanks, but they were unable to create at least approximate copy.
Joseph Y. Kotin is the Hero of Socialist Labour, was awarded four-time with the Stalin's (State) Prizes of the USSR, Colonel General Engineer, PhD, awarded with a number of state awards of the Soviet Union for outstanding design development of military and civilian technology. Joseph Kotin is borned on February 26, 1908 in Ukraine, in the Dnipropetrovsk Region Pavlograd in a working class family. He was named in his grandfather's honor, who was Poles by birth and long years ago settled on the banks of the river on the outskirts of Pavlograd. The designer's father, James A., serviced steam mills. He was first introduced to the technique and its capabilities through his father's work. His father had the opportunity to teach all five children, thanks to his income. Anxious twenties in history affected the destiny of each individual family. War, famine, unemployment ... In searching for the best living conditions Kotin family moved to Kharkov, where in 1923 Joseph got a job of the fitter's assistant at "Work". There Kotin embodied in first his technical talent in improving grip, for which he received a patent. In 1927 he graduated from the faculty of the workers. At the parents' request, Joseph entered the medical school, but his passion was technology, and he transferred to the mechanical department of the Kharkiv Institute of Technology.
The formation of a creative personality
Even during the Civil War, Kharkiv became the center of recovery tanks that appeared in the country as trophies. The symbol of the professional work Kharkiv citizens, who returned tanks to action and handed them to the Red Army, was erected in 1921 in Kharkov tank-monument. So, perhaps, overlooking the tank memorial Joseph back in the twenties planned to construct a fighting machine. The process of studying for Kotin was easy, and he, as an A-student, in August 1929 was sent to continue his study in Leningrad, the Military Technical Academy named after FE Dzerzhinsky. The beginning of the 30s is a time when the Soviet Union became concerned rearmament of the army. Old models of equipment and weapons were upgraded, young engineers adopted the experience of the few specialists, that remained, tried themselves in improving foreign technology, gaining invaluable experience. Joseph Kotin told about the study at the Academy: "There was plenty of tank fleet of foreign cars of various types and purposes in the Academy. It should be said that they reflected not only the level of design ideas and technologies of different countries, but also the most controversial military concepts" Therefore, the Academy became a research center of the development, design and production of armored vehicles. While studying at the academy the future designer with admiration attended lectures on the history of tanks and other armored vehicles, creatively worked out educational material. His lecture notes for a long time served him as a background in future developments and protection of his own ideas and new technical solutions. Kotin Joseph defended diploma project twice. For the first time it was as it should be, but at the second time, to the chief of armaments of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA) MM Tukhachevsky. Mikhail Nikolayevich as one of the ideologists of rearmament, its motorization interested in the best work of graduates of the academy. After defending his diploma project dedicated to the development of wheeled caterpillar tank at the truck AMO-3, Kotin left the military academy of design engineer research sector. On its own initiative Kotin began to improve various military units and units of machines. He developed a machine gun installation at the motorcycle. Later, he founded and headed the design department. Employees of the department involved in the various, including experimental work, participated in the revision p'yatybashtovoho heavy tank T-35, engaged in the problems of landing tanks T-37 flying. In these studies manifested organizational skills Kotin, and he was appointed as the chief of Design Office research department of the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army. About this period of activity later recalled Lieutenant-General Vladimir Kashuba: ""I remember at the beginning of his work as head of the design department of the Academy, he planned to organize an experimental breadboard model workshop". He was refused. He insisted and was refused once more time, and only the tenth time his request was satisfied. To us, as his comrades, it even seemed that, encountering obstacles, he became three times harder. "
Head constructor of Tanks
In May 1937 a young engineer was appointed as a chief designer of the SKB-2 Kirov Plant. This appointment was not only the recognition of managerial and engineering talent, and in those years also difficult challenge since the previous chief designer and plant manager were arrested. Tasks for designers and factory workers were not easy: it was necessary to develop a tank with heavy armor protection, as in those days, said - "tovstobronnyy." Kotin's first work was to upgrade the T-28, which was produced at the plant. Brought in the design changes made it possible to improve manufacturing techniques and improve the reliability of the tank. Since 1938, SCB-2 according to the order of the military had begun to develop new many tower breakthrough tank SMK (Sergei Myronovych Kirov). The work was difficult not only with engineering point of view. While the prevailing concept breakout tanks tower as many machines with high fire power, the focus is to maneuver these machines are not paid. However, a number of designers have already expressed the idea of a single tower tank with strong reservations. This was discussed on the common meeting of the Defense Committee and Politburo of the CPSU (b). At this meeting, J. Kotin reported about the main tactical and technological characteristics of future cars, not hiding his doubts about the feasibility creating three tower tank.
Peace Creator Technology
Start at number 39 on 12/05/2013
In the Soviet Union there was a procedure in which defensive companies had also produce products for civil uses. So, logically , that after the victorious end of World War II the staff of the Kirov factory, its chief designer Z.Y. Kotin received in 1947 the Order of the Minister of Transport Engineering , V.A. Malyshev make your design and prototypes Forestry tractors , essential for the timber industry, which was to provide timber renewals postwar economy. Skidder was created less than a year after getting the job. One could only wonder how Joseph Kotin, military specialists , managed to deeply comprehend purely peaceful business, understand the specific machining wood and formulate technical requirements for machinery, new even for the loggers . For labor feat June 2, 1948 Joseph Kotin was the fourth time awarded the State Prize.
In 1957 kirovtsi received a new order - make a batch of all-terrain vehicles for the Soviet Antarctic Expedition. Initiated this request known Arctic explorers , led by Mikhail Somov, who in an interview with Z.Y. Kotin , describing the prospects opened to researchers distant continent, chief designer took the idea of an all-terrain mobile laboratory for polar explorers . For this technique needed a metal capable of withstanding very low temperature, chassis rover was to ensure unhindered movement as snow and on ice. Antarctic terrain vehicle called "Penguin " was created in record time and more than the usual targets, successfully passed factory and field- you dwelling . Seven -terrain vehicles were taken to Antarctica diesel electric boat "Ob". They have come his way to the pole of inaccessibility for three days before their U.S. counterparts.
In August 1961 the Kirov factory received the next task - to create a powerful new tractor - universal tractor, which could be and cargo transport, and to plow and sow. A design factory was offered a number of new technical solutions, develop conceptual design was approved in November 1961, a technical project - in January 1962. In July of that year, a new hero steppe - tractor "Kirovets" - made its first run. And all this is for a period of less than one year. The first production tractor "Kirovets" (K- 700) mounted on the main conveyor plant September 14, 1964. This tractor has become the most powerful in the Soviet Union General-purpose wheeled tractors. For high performance design and tractor K -700 was awarded a gold medal at the exhibition of agricultural machinery in the German Democratic Republic and the chief designer of the Kirov plant Z.Y. Kotin was awarded third Order of the Red Banner. Tractor K -700 survived several upgrades, enhancements, updates the look and today is the trend of the Kirov plant in St. Petersburg.
Developments for transportation missile and nuclear technology
In 1953, the Soviet Union created a new Ministry of Medium Machine Building, headed by Vyacheslav Malyshev, a former People's Commissar for Tank Industry, Minister of Heavy Machinery. Public affairs V. Malyshev and J. Kotin, their friendship in recent years have been the basis of this appeal: "Joseph, life did you do with tanks, but tanks era has passed, the country's defense rests on the shoulders nuclear scientists and missile. Why are you so stubborn, why do not you want to do a new thing?"
And Joseph Kotin joined to these proposals, the more that had excellent personal relations with such legendary creators of the space industry, as Sergey Korolyov and Michael Yangel. Super-secret founder of practical astronautics S.P. Korolev special arrived in March 10, 1958 in Leningrad, Joseph Kotin to congratulate him on his 50th anniversary. "Our first satellite launched into space missile R -7, to which you, Joseph Y., have a direct connection. Working in the committee that conducted the scientific examination of conceptual design of the R- 7, you were one of the first who gave "good " our development ", - said S. King. Under the scientific supervision of SP Queen, with the Kirov factory developed the country's first mobile ground missile systems with. Based on the research design of tanks, self-propelled J. Kotin created installations and devices for missiles for different purposes - strategic, tactical and tactical.
It was later collaboration with Mikhail Kuzmich Yangelya. One of their CB M.K. Yangelya, Honoured inventor of Ukraine Volodymyr Fedorov says: "We arrived at the Kirov factory to match the documentation for the transport truck under the "moon rocket" Yangelya. Meet with the chief designer of the Kirov factory Joseph Kotin. Documentation agreed quickly, and Kotin says: - Well, what kind of work for our KB - trolley case? Now, if you had a rocket thirty tons, we would make a mobile missile launcher. - I said that such a missile we have. - Pass Mikhail Kuzmich that I wanted to work with him on this topic."
Joint work teams headed Yangelya M. and J. Kotin, created the world's first movable missile system RT- 20P with intercontinental missiles 8K99. Symbolically, this complex were in Pavlograd - the hometown of Joseph Kotin. This ground missile system in 1967, was shown at a military parade in Moscow. The unique self-propelled J. Kotin this complex was the last design chief designer of the Kirov factory. 1968 Colonel General engineering services Kotin J. was the Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR.
The city on the Neva River, which passed most of his life J. Kotin, with great respect keep the memory of an outstanding designer. In the Kirov region one of the new street named after him. Name Z.Y. Kotin is engineering college. On the territory of the production association "Kirov Plant" opened a monument to Chief Designer. On the pedestal that resembles the shape of a tank turret, shows two famous kotinski tanks - KB and IS. Bronze letters shine with the words: "Hero of Socialist Labor chief designer Joseph Yakovlevich Kotin to commemorate labor feats to build armored vehicles during the Great Patriotic War."
In Chelyabinsk at the house where he lived, set a memorial plaque in his name and one of the streets is named after J. Kotin.
The memory of the prominent designer cherish his fellow-pavlohradtsi. Materials about the life and work of Z.Y. Kotin well represented in the museum of the city of Pavlograd, in the halls of military glory local schools. In 1986, Dnipropetrovsk climbers conquered the unnamed peak near Turkestan ridge to the Tien Shan and called subjugated top that has a height of 4820 meters, "Peak Kotin." In 1987 in Pavlograd in memory of the prominent design on a pedestal set one of his heavy tanks - IS-3.
(Presentations at academic readings from the series "Famous Designers Ukraine "in" KPI "31.10.2013)