1943-1951: Re-evacuation and recovery of the Institute

The liberation of Kiev in November 1943 allowed to resume the work of the Institute. The assistant professor V.I. Gorodisky was appointed to head the restoration. The registration for faculty, staff, students returning to college was started. Up to 25 November, it was registered 8 professors, 9 associate professors, 16 teachers, 30 support staff employees, 20 students.

Among the first to restore were the Departments of the basic chemistry of silicates (temporarily headed by prof. B.S. Lisin), general and analytical, physical and colloid chemistry, electrochemistry (headed by prof. V.A.Izbekov), Organic Chemistry (headed by Assoc. V.A. Kuzmin) {13, p. 9]. In January, 1944 the assistant professor A.S. Plygunov was appointed the director of KPI. He was an outstanding scientist in the field of chemical engineering. A.S. Plygunov headed the institute for nearly 25 years, and the department of technology of inorganic substances supervised more than 30 years. He has made a great contribution to the development of the institution in the difficult post-war years.

In the second half of January 1944 the selection committee to recruit students for the first year and restore the senior students began its work. Until the return of the basic structure from the Tashkent Institute there were formed three departments: Mechanical and Chemical Technology (with four chairs each), Electrical Engineering (with one of the department). On the education there were created five all-institute departments. To improve the quality of student recruitment of young people with incomplete secondary education there were established preparatory courses with 6-8-month training period. On the order of the government classes at nine universities in Kiev resumed from mid-February 1944. It was supposed to October this year to increase the number of students in the Kiev Industrial Institute until 1000 [6, p. 7]. The first semester, the institute began with 20 professors, 20 associate professors, 18 lecturers and about 100 students of the second - fifth year, 250 students at the preparatory department [6, p. 9]. Classes began on February 15. This day it was held a general meeting of the faculty, staff and students, dedicated to the 45th anniversary of the Institute.

All the efforts of the Institute staff were directed at restoring the training facilities. Due to the Nazi occupation and the fierce battles for Kiev it was destroyed more than half of the total area of classrooms. The main and chemistry buildings were suffered from aerial bombardment, student dormitories- from fire. The occupants took or destroyed the laboratory equipment, library collections were robbed. Established in the institute committee headed by the Deputy Director VI town found that the total value of the destroyed, looted and damaged property institute was costed 30 million rubles. Only to restore the institute's premises it should perform the scope of work costing at least 11 million rubles. [6, p. 7].

First of all, for study and research there was a need to adapt the surviving classrooms and laboratories, provide temporary lighting and space heating, to collect and assign suvived training equipment. For each member of the team there was established labor standard - to work on the restoration of the Institute at least nine hours a week.

Significant acceleration of reconstruction there was contributed the decision of People's Commissars of the USSR on the preparations for the Kiev Industrial Institute for the new academic year, approved May 29, 1944. It envisaged a major restoration of the Institute, the implementation of which was assigned to the civil engineering organization of the People's Commissariat of the republic. There were scheduled specific measures for financial support of these works . Kiev city council was instructed to release the institute premises occupied by other organizations. Institute for the dormitory was given the house on the street Polevaia, and there were allotted two apartment buildings for faculty members [6, p. 49]. Universities of the central and eastern parts of the country gave the sponsorship assistance in rebuilding to the universities of Kiev and other Ukrainian cities. Thus, the team of Tomsk Industrial Institute took the patronage of Kiev Industrial Institute. The Tomsk Institute gave the part of textbooks and literature to supplement the training facilities. May 26, 1944, the management of public organizations sent a letter to Tomsk Industrial Institute, in which they expressed their gratitude for the valuable initiative [11, p. 1] and help.

Gradually the material conditions of life of students, faculty and staff of the university were improved. The continuous operation of the institute canteen, equipment of the student dormitory were the most important issues of that time. In June 1944 it was created the subsidiary farm with land area of 90 hectares to additional supply of food for the community of the institute.

Overcoming numerous financial difficulties, the institute worked hard in the first semester. Despite the significant break in training, 63% of first-year students in the summer of 1944 successfully passed the exams, including 54% "excellent" and "good." However, these results were somewhat lower than the pre-war figures [1, p. 22].

The staff of the Institute actively participated in the public life of the country. Thus, in early 1944 it was collected for the construction of a tank column 27 thousand 650 rubles. (Excluding jewelry) [11, p. 21], together with the people of Kiev students and teachers in their spare time worked on the restoration of Kreshatik and other objects of the capital.

A new stage in the restoration of the university began with the return of the main part of the institute's team of evacuation. In April 1944, the staff of the Kiev Industrial Institute separated from the SAS, and in June - August, returned to Kiev (reevacuation management was entrusted to the director of the Institute A. Plygunov). In this regard, it was significantly increased the number of faculty, staff and students of the institute, there increased opportunities to accelerate reconstruction, improving the educational process and scientific research. The Institute has been included in the list of the most important industrial and transport universities. Students of all courses were exempt from conscription into the Soviet Army, they were given the increased scholarship, first of all it concerned the students mastered the function of casting, forging, pressing and chemical production. Excellent students received higher (25%) scholarship [6, p. 14].

In July 1944 the Government approved the request of management and public organizations of the Institute for the restoration of the former name of the university, it was renamed the Polytechnic [6, p. 47]. In August, a training in electrical instrument department began, and in October it was established metallurgical faculty for the training of engineers in metallurgy and processing of ferrous metals (As the Dean of the Faculty it was appointed Dr. K.I. Vashenko). In this connection it was created five additional departments, led by M.M. Dobrokhotov, V.E. Vasiliev and other scientists.

The new academic year after the re-evacuation, the institute began in the period established by the government - October 1, 1944. At the Institute at the time there operated eight major faculties and the preparatory faculty, 43 departments. The teaching staff consisted of seven academicians and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 26 doctors and professors, 70 candidates of sciences and associate professors, 108 teachers and assistants. At the faculty there were trained 1755 students, at the preparatory department - 445. The total number of the institute's staff exceeded 2500 people [1, p. 11].

The management and social organization of the Institute mobilized teachers, workers, students to accelerate reconstruction, the efforts were directed at improving the educational process. Faculties and departments the educational and methodical work was revived. The team of authors, headed by prof. VA Izbekov, has developed a manual for practical training in general chemistry, and prof. S.S. Rudnik produced several manuals on manufacturing engineering. In April 1945, by order of the Institute for the initiative in the equipment of educational laboratories the gratitude was given to the staff of Faculty of Electrical Engineering headed by prof. A.V. Orlovsky [4, p. 12]. The social measures contributed to the quality of the learning process contributed. In February 1945, SNK USSR adopted a resolution on improving the material conditions of university students, which was supposed to improve the work of libraries, dining rooms and dormitories [15, p. 10]. These measures allowed the institute's team successfully completed the first academic year. Summer exams were passed successfully by more than 64% of students (in the winter - about 53%), 39% of them as "excellent". Such successes have been achieved, in particular, by veterans A.Y. Bokrinska, V.M. Vinoslavsky, A.D. Trubenok [16, p. 3].

Along with intense educational works a number of departments of the institute, despite the difficult conditions began to carry out important for scientific and technological progress and national defense research. In 1944 the university was carried out dozens of scientific research. For example, under the guidance of prof. S.I. Tetelbaum it was completed development of a new type of radar for the aircraft, which had advantages over other radar systems [8, p. 67].

Institute staff also helped build other universities of the country. In November 1944 to strengthen the teaching staff Lviv Polytechnic Institute there was sent lecturers and teachers F.A. Alisimenko, V.J. Bershov, K.A. Byko, A.G. Zhivotovsky, K.M. Pogodin, D.P. Scripcenco. From modest library funds there have been allocated more than 5000 copies of textbooks and literature [14, p. 74].

In order to expand the training of engineers of People's Commissars of the USSR June 29, 1945 there was adopted a resolution "On measures for the rehabilitation and development of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute", which obliged the USSR People's Commissariat of civil construction to be completed by the beginning of the new academic year restoration of educational buildings, factories, kitchens and student dormitories, to the end year to equip homes for teachers, and other objects. Total capital works estimated about 3500000 rubles., Significant funds were allocated for building materials and training equipment. Plan of admission of students to the first year increased to 1,000, and in graduate school - up to 40. In order to promote in the conduct of scientific-methodical and research work for the year awarded one first (15 thousand. Rub.) and two second prizes (10 thousand. Rub .). The Institute provides the ability to issue collections of scientific papers [17, p. 12].

Because the builders violated the timing of reconstruction (the summer of 1945 there were spent only 20% of the allocated funds [8, p. 80]), the staff of the Institute started to be involved it the participation in these works. In the summer of 1945, students and teachers volunteered for a month of vacation leave performed urgent construction work. In July 1945, there was created by a student building detachment of 100 people; from student volunteers it was formed a team of 25 people to de-mine the territory. For restoration and repair of houses there was used the experience of Stalingrad, where there were created the city maintenance crews from the inhabitants of the city. The latter provides the materials and skilled technical guidance [15, p. 120].

It was paid great attention to improving the quality of the enrollment of students, the activities of the preparatory department. 1945 this office was supposed to prepare 250 students, and later enrolled 450. Most of them were children of soldiers and guerrillas. Students studied ten preparatory department of general education disciplines. In July 1945 it was created a two-month training courses for demobilized soldiers who have completed secondary education. At the same time at the preparatory department it was continued training of young people who during the war interrupted his studies in high school. By the end of 1945 there was restored in the IV course of more than 80 students [8, p. 85].

In order to improve the level of training the curricula and programs were revised. By 1945, the number of academic disciplines and special courses, the ratio of theoretical and practical training defined differentially for each specialty. In 1945 there was done a partial unification of the five-year curriculum of the related specialties, it was developed new curricula designed to prepare professionals for five and a half years [18, p. 16].

Faculties and departments teachers assisted students in independent study. Special attention was required by undergraduates. General scientific departments had to help them fill in the gaps in knowledge on general subjects, which were formed as a result of violations of the learning process in wartime, the imperfections of the then school programs. Special chairs tried to quickly restore the necessary knowledge undergraduates who have returned to college after the war. At the same time the pedagogical supervision significantly increased. Due to the measures taken almost 90% of students completed training tasks in a timely manner [18, p. 16].

A research work was continuing in the Institute, part of professors and teachers in it increased from 50 to 80%. At this time, 78 scientific and technical topics were developed, which included individual and collective work. Scientists and experts KPI provided necessary support to industrial enterprises and design organizations of the republic. Since 1945 agreements have been signed for the aid worth more than 700 thousand rubles. Institute staff participated in 88 experiments, conducted more than 120 scientific and technical consultations. Because some departments lacked laboratory equipment and technical personnel, the performance of individual research work was delayed [1, p. 57].

Educational process and scientific work combined with the active participation of staff in public and political life of the country carrying out a subscription to the last war loan, restoration of municipal services, the Victory Day celebrations and other events.

Thus, due to its own enthusiasm, help of the urban, national and Union government authorities, the institute collective actively overcame the difficulties of recovery, provided the conditions in military plans to release qualified specialist engineers. Continuing the patriotic tradition of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, the KPI team has proudly stood the ordeal of war and made a significant contribution to the victory. The merits of the university staff in addressing the challenges of war in November 1944 were marked by state awards - orders and medals. 122 employee KPI 1945 received medals "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War."

The task of post-war reconstruction and further development of the national economy demanded from the collective of hard work. In early 1946, the KPI in eight faculties training was attended by more than 2 thousand students: a mechanical – 565, Electrical Engineering - 373, Radio - 340 Chemical Engineering – 275, thermodynamics – 132, Metallurgy - 129, Chemical Engineering - 98, pulp and paper - 94 student. More than half of the students were enrolled in the first and second years [19, p. 6]. Institute staff was clearly aware of its task - to accelerate the build-up training of engineers. Taking into account the needs of the industry in 1946 at the Institute opened the Faculty of Mining, 1947 - Welding, 1948 - Engineering Physics and Engineering Pedagogical (for teacher training and education system of labor reserves). At the same time, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering teamed up with mechanical, and pulp and paper - with Chemical Technology.

Acceleration and expansion of training engineers for the national economy has put a high priority in the completion of the Institute of restoration work. Thanks to the efforts of builders and staff of the university in September 1946 there was restored heating and electricity, windows were glazed, classrooms minimally equipped. At the Departments educational and laboratory facilities were restored and expanded. In 1945-1946 there were equipped ten laboratories, the total number had increased to 42. The students of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute were able to use three halls for drawing and five for reading [18, p. 4].

Great efforts have been aimed at the restoration of the book fund of scientific library. Before the war, it had more than 1 100 000 books and magazines, after the liberation from Nazi occupation was able to collect only 100 000. A special initiative in this matter was shown by the librarian L.G. Papirovy and created at the end of 1944 Public Library Board. The book fund was increased at the expense of public expenditure through the mentoring of other universities. In the summer of 1946 the library fund was over 129 thousand of scientific, technical and educational materials, and more than 6 thousands fiction [18, p. 38].

During 1946-47 by joint efforts of builders and students of the institute there were repaired and rebuilt the second and third student dormitories, there were equipped 15 new laboratories. In preparation for the new academic year, students worked on the restoration of various objects Institute [20, p. 19]. In January 1948, in the main, and the Chemical Corps was commissioned 7449 m2 area, which increased the number of laboratories to 64 and to 30 offices have been established or significantly re-equipped laboratory strength of materials, machine tools, metal cutting, welding machines and apparatus chemical industry, foundry and casting machines, settled first hostel, equipped stadium, landscaped grounds and park area of 50 hectares, planted hundreds of trees. Students and staff of metallurgical faculty working to develop laboratory steel metallurgy, electrical - electronic and ionic technology and the measurement of non-electrical quantities, thermo - industrial gas dynamics and compressors, mining - mining machines. There were opened offices geophysics and mining cabinets, metalwork workshop [21, p. 1].

For 1949-1951 years builders together with the staff of the Institute have built and put into operation 10 thousand m2 academic and about 400 m2 of living space (the latter in the homes of the faculty). Currently, the total area of the two academic buildings was 22,104 m2. There were equipped with laboratory components, machinery, agglomeration of Metal, medical imaging, electromagnetic fields, physical and chemical composition of dielectrics, special laboratory at the Department of central power stations, study the organization of production and safety, and others. In total, the institute there were functioned 104 laboratories, 29 classrooms, 3 training workshops, 56 departments in ten faculties [22, p. 16].

However, the overall area of classrooms was not fully restored, while number of students considerably exceeded the prewar level - more than 4500 people learned in the Institute. Therefore, there were not enough training facilities. Residential area of student dormitories (5565 m2) was not enough, because the institute trained many students from other cities. In addition, the workshop of the Institute were occupied by the plant of I.I. Lepse and laboratories of the Faculty of heating were used as the dining room. All this has led to the fact that the Institute moved to shift work.