1917-1921: KPI during the Civil War

During the first post-revolutionary years and during the Civil War, despite the political changes in Ukraine, the KPI remained higher school of the old type. Like many other institutions of higher education, it has maintained a permanent structure: in the Institute there were functioned four faculties - mechanical engineering, chemical and agronomic. In the summer of 1918 it was established Faculty of Electrical Engineering [1, p. 33]. The number of students reached 1458 people [2, p. 57]. Among them there were the natives of the nobility (30%), clergy, merchants and industrialists (16%), with sufficiently high proportion of residents (34%), rich peasants (17%). 2.5% of them were foreigners [2, p. 55].

Classes at the Institute continued until November 1918 By order of the Directory the Institute, as well as other universities, where teaching was conducted in Russian [1, p. 34], has been closed. Education was renewed for a short time in January - February 1919 after the liberation of Ukraine from German-Austrian and the Entente troops and lasted until August, that is, until the capture of Kiev by Denikin army.

By the Decree of the Soviet government at the end of January 1919 all universities of Ukraine were submitted to the People's Commissariat of the Republic and were taken for the maintenance of the state [4, p. 37]. In February 1919, a state commission was set up to prepare the reform of higher education. Decree of People's Commissars of March 2, 1919 "On joining the high school" opened the way to higher education for everyone, even people who do not have diplomas and certificates of education.

According to the decision of the Higher School of the USSR People's Commissariat of May 28, 1919 in all the institutions of the republic were to lecture and conduct workshops in the evening hours for workers [5, p. 24]. From March 1, 1919 there were canceled tuition fees, it was introduced welfare of students. The reorganization of management of higher educational institutions of Ukraine remained one of the important tasks. March 11, 1919 Department of Higher School of the People's Commissariat of the USSR issued a decree by which management of scientific, academic and educational work of the university was assigned to the relevant councils. Scientific Council should organize research work, training - to manage the educational process, education - to spread knowledge among the population. The management of economic activities of the university was entrusted to the economic committee. Management institution of higher education was concentrated in the hands of the Commissioner appointed by the People's Commissariat of the USSR [3, p. 48]. Thus, the Commissioner F. Blokhin was appointed in the KPI[6, p. 2]. The institute there were began working scientific and educational, scientific and Teaching Council, the economic committee.

The number of professors and teachers at the Chemistry Department at the time reached 50 people (E.P. Votchal, G. De Metz, D.C. Dobroserdov, I.D. Zhukov, P.I. Izhevsky, V.A. Kosinski, M. P. Chirvinsky, V.G.Shaposhnikov et al.), on the mechanical - 55 (K.X. Abramovich, E.P. Babic, N.A. Nikolaev, I.M. Ganitsky, G.M.. Gubarev et al. ) for engineering - 46 (A.P. Artemevsky, M.S. Bragintsev, P.V. Voronets, M.B. Delaunay, V.P. Ermakov, P.F. Erchenko, V.F. Ivanov et al .), on electrotechnical - 26 (K.F. Aralovich, P.V. Voronets, A.G. Goldman G.G.De-Metz, D.C. Dobroserdov, A.V. Krukovskiy, M.L. Kucherov, J.M. Markovic et al.), at the Agronomy - 40 people (V.V.Kolkunov, V.P.Ustyantsev, G.A. Levitsky et al.) [7, p. 11]. 1 April 1919 there were in total 172 professors and teachers in the KPI [8, p. 140].

The management of the institute included students, teachers, assistants and employees. For example, on the board of the Agronomy Faculty, the following students were working: M. Laptiychuk, D.T. Parkhomenko, the teacher G.A.Levitskii, the Assistant K.I. Pawlowski [9, p. 70].

Chairman of the Economic Committee Ya.M.Markovich in one of the memos noted that with the advent of Denikin "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute began to live under the old statute. The Institute Council adopted: do not enroll students to the first year, do not conduct lectures and do not read them. Permission is granted to private lessons on drawing, design, as well as protection of special projects. Students are taught very little. The economic life of the Institute was barely smoldering. Employees salaries did not respond to that time prices of essential commodities "[1, p. 33]. On January 1, 1920 at the Institute there were remained only 75 teachers and 20 technicians. The number of students significantly reduced.

In early 1920, after the liberation of Denikin, the activities of universities were restored. There was an urgent need for qualified personnel, it was necessary to restore the destroyed economy. In this regard, much responsibility was given to the people's education and vocational training. In particular activities in the field of universities were led by the High School Directorate, which reported directly to the People's Commissariat of the USSR. In the management of scientific and academic work there were taken part administrative and academic, economic and financial departments, as well as social welfare department students.

June 9, 1920 the People's Commissariat of the USSR issued a "control instruction of high school on the ground", which became a temporary Charter schools. It determines the direction of restructuring teaching work and reorganization of universities, notably those under view of curricula and programs, the combination of theoretical study material with a long work experience. To accelerate the training of experts it was proposed to introduce three semesters training system, improve discipline, improve teaching methods, create new organs of internal management of higher education institutions - high school councils and their Presidency, to involve for work in them representatives of organized students [3, p. 57].

The faculty councils and the combined meeting of their bureau engaged in the problems of the inner life of the KPI. The functions of the presidium were to identify and shaping the structure of faculties, review and approval of annual scientific and educational reports, mission representatives at congresses and conferences, etc. [10. 96]. The chairman and secretary of the joint meeting of the Bureau should enforce the decrees and orders of the People's Commissariat of the USSR, kept in touch with it on behalf of the university, keep the university stamp [10, p. 98]. In addition, in the institute it was created an economic committee, chaired by prof. Y.M. Markiewicz. The combined meeting of the Presidiums was headed by prof. M.A. Prilezhaev, chairman of the mechanical department was prof. O.Y. Stupin, engineering - prof. E.A. Paton, chemical - prof. M.A. Prilezhaev, Agronomy - prof. E.P. Votchal, electrical – A.V. Krukovskiy. The joint meeting of the faculty councils of the institute, the Bureau of faculty councils, economic committee included representatives from 162 students. At the Institute, there were 58 training and support institutions. The staff of the Institute included 266 people [10, p. 96]. Training activities provided the Department of Mathematics, mechanical technology, physics, electrical engineering, building art and architecture, chemistry, chemical engineering, technology, building materials, metallurgy, botany, zoology, agriculture, animal science, agricultural economics and statistics, geology and mineralogy, Political Economy and Statistics [ 10, p. 96].

During the Civil War, the number of students in higher education institutions of Ukraine was very unstable. So, on August 4, 1920 there were 5324 students, admitted to the university in previous years, and 1117- in July 1920, total 6441 people [10, p. 96]. This increase is explained by the fact that many students were enrolled formally. For example, at the Chemistry Department with 863 students on the list in January 1921 the classes were attended only by 177 [11, p. 4]. It should be noted that while the KPI was merged with the Higher Technical Institute, in which there were 200 students [9, p. 59].

In May 1920 the People's Commissariat of the USSR issued a decree on the opening of the summer term and the creation of the technical institutions of special commissions for the organization of the accelerated release engineers. The ruling People's Commissars of the USSR on July 5, 1920 "On the acceleration of engineers training" is defined period of accelerated training - from July 1 to November 1, 1920. Almost all senior students are able to perform four months learning tasks, which under normal conditions was given a year or two. Enterprises, institutions, military units were obliged to send to the institutions of anyone who has not completed the training and wanted to do it in a short time. Those, admitted to employment accelerated cycle were declared mobilized and provided with rations [12, 13, p. 229, 43].

August 10, 1920, the KPI had 192 such students, of which the mechanical faculty – 63, Engineering - 59, chemical - 38 Agronomy - 32 [10, p. 96]. For classes with them 90 professors and teachers were attracted.

However, civil war, and in particular the invasion of white-Poles in Ukrain in spring of 1920, had a negative impact on the work of the KPI. Scientific, educational and economic life it barely smoldered, the valuable institute's property was plundered. By the Order of the Office of the Higher School of 8 November 1920 to number 184 [15, p. 5] Institute in connection with the decline of its scientific, educational and economic activities, and non-compliance requirements of modern life was closed, and its staff was retired. All teaching and service staff positions were declared vacant. Prior to the transfer of cases and property new personnel laid-off workers were obliged to remain in place and fulfill their obligations in exchange for an appropriate fee.

For the reorganization of the KPI in November 1920 the organizational council was created. It included 21 people (A.P. Artemevsky, V.F. Bobrov, S.F. Veselovskii (chairman), A.G. Goldman, A.M. Kachalovskaya, I.A. Ladyzhenskii et al.). Note that it also included representatives from the institute of public organizations. Organizational council in accordance with the order, elected fort the year the rector, secretary and deans, faculty secretaries (mechanical, engineering, chemical, agronomic, electrical), which, after approval by the Office of high school started to work. Organizational Council of the Institute had to make curricula and solve organizational issues relating to scientific and educational and economic resettlement institution personnel matters [16, p. 1]. Selected rector and deans have formed a temporary board of the Institute, which is guided in its work by the organizational regulations of the Board and was its executive body. Organizational Board worked from 10 November 1920 to 22 March 1921 The staff of the Institute during this period has not changed, but gradually it has formed an active group who are making positive changes in the work of the university and developed it on a new basis. It included proactive professors, teachers, and students.

Organizational council and it is the commission found that the mass of the students was"deformed". To fix the position of each student or group of students were given the opportunity to enter into private agreements with professors or teachers and pass the test to them. Since the institution was not heated, classes were held in the homes of professors. The registration of students was not carried out, the curricula and programs have not been revised, were pre-revolutionary. Particular attention was concentrated on teaching students the accelerated release. October 1, 1920, there were 249 students of the institute in this category, including the Faculty of Mechanics – 85, Engineering - 74, chemical – 46, Agronomy - 44. As of November 1, 1920 by the Faculty of Engineering enrolled 76 students (average grades 40, 4%), mechanical - 81 (53.5%), chemical - 52 (94.4%), Agronomy - 39 (55.3%), but only two finished Institute student. Thus, the learning outcomes of students even accelerated releases were negligible [15, p. 7].

Organizational Council and the Board, headed by prof. S.F.Veselovsky put a lot of effort to streamline the learning process. It was developed a new curricula for students in the faculties of all the courses reviewed and modified educational programs. Duration of the course of study was three years. During this period, students must obtain a degree in engineering.

The persons who have graduated from secondary school level and had knowledge of the appropriate volume could be enrolled on the first year. Each year of study was divided into three trimesters lasted an average of three months, and the academic week - 40-45 hours.

The basis of the new curriculum was based on the following principles: the elimination of multi-disciplinary courses by merging homogeneous one, which thus gave a set of scientific knowledge necessary for students; formation of students' broad-minded; development of active thinking. It was envisaged the mandatory study of foreign languages and the Ukrainian language. To facilitate the course and avoid overloading students with the knowledge, not related to the main specialty, during the fifth trimester the future specialization of students was determined. For example, on a mechanical faculty prepared engineers and mechanical engineers. The first specialized on equipment at the factory and factory buildings and businesses, and the preparation of detailed calculations, the second ones - in the design, then there had to improve and create new types of engines, machines, instruments, agricultural implements, etc. Engineers-technologists, starting from the fifth trimester studied geodesy, heating and ventilation, the factory architecture, physical chemistry, general chemical technology, water supply and sanitation, organization of work in the factories and the like; mechanical engineers - engineering and design methods, applied mechanics, machine control, strength of materials, metallography, technical analysis of metals and fuel, and others. After the sixth trimester, students had practice in the factories. Process engineers made projects of equipment factories and their estimates; mechanical engineers – carried out a preparation of structures of various machines, expected strength, determines the quality of materials and so on. d.). In the seventh and eighth trimesters of Mechanical Engineers in the specialty was divided into seven departments. Thus achieved the possibility of improving the knowledge on the basic disciplines for this specialty. During the ninth trimester students compiled a special project on the chosen specialty.

In explaining the curriculum mechanical department indicated that subjects were studied during the trimester series: knowledge of a particular cycle of disciplines based on previously obtained. The training plan provided for the following areas of specialization: thermal engineering, hydraulics, blower and refrigeration systems, aviation, engineering technology and mechanical systems, agricultural industry. For each direction in the curriculum there were determined special courses for reading.

About on such principles it was evolved a curricula in other departments of the Institute [17, p. 134]. At the same time, considerable attention was paid to the socio-political and economic disciplines: history of Ukraine, Russian law, economics, statistics, history and theory of cooperation [14, p. 12].

1921 Ukrgolovprofosvita issued "Provisional Regulations on institutions of higher education in Ukraine", which confirmed the three-year period of study, and recommended for reviewing of training programs an establishment in the faculties the commission of experts. According to the requirements of the "Interim Provisions" all teaching staff was reattested and some teachers released. Vacant positions were occupied by new teachers, mainly with extensive experience. Working in unheated laboratories, without the necessary library (many books from the library of KPI was stolen, about 6 thousand volumes of books were stored in the apartments of employees) the professors still continued their scientific work.

In March 1921, the People's Commissar of Education of Ukraine G.F.Grinko visited the Institute. He acknowledged that the organizing committee and the temporary board of the Institute have done a lot for the reorganization of the university. Organizational council was dissolved and the leadership of the Institute was entrusted to the newly appointed board of the KPI with the rector prof. M.A.Kuharenko as the head. The new board has continued to work on the reorganization of the Institute, made the first serious steps towards the proletarianization of the university. A lot of efforts have been made to remove from the territory of the Institute the City Transport workshop and instead open workshops of KPI.

In the spring of 1921, the first post-war set wa done in high school. To the first course there were taken 870 students, of which the Faculty of Engineering - 184, Mechanical – 162, chemical - 166, electricity - 164, Agronomy - 194.

When receiving a preference was given to the applicants from the working class and the peasantry [15, p. 8]. According to the decree of the CPC of Ukraine on March 7, 1921 on May 19 in the KPI it was opened working faculty, which for lack of suitable premises was temporarily located in the house 32 on the street. Pushkinskaya [15, p. 8]. Before August 1, it was prepared for workers' school the curriculum, there were compiled programs in all subjects, as well as setting new working methods with the students [18, p. 34]. Rabfak trained workers and peasants to learning in higher education. 1920/21 school year ended 35 students of this faculty Institute [15, p. 8].

The work, which was started at the Institute in the summer of 1921, nearly stopped with the beginning of the frost, because the rooms were not heated (wood, with great difficulty, harvested in the summer, not delivered). To get out of a difficult situation, it was necessary to take decisive action and to involve the entire staff of the university. But M.A. Kuharenko was overloaded with work outside the institute. Therefore, in his place in December 1921 it was appointed a former deputy dean of the Faculty of Mechanical V.F. Bobrow [15, p. 8]. The new rector relayed in his work on conscious students as well as on the large part of the teachers.

The new style of leadership has given its results. The training in winter was provided with joint efforts. With the help of workers of educational and mechanical workshops there have been renovated interior and technical equipment of the economic institution. A small but tangible financial assistance was provided by Tsukortrest, the first providing scholarships to 90 students of the university. In February 1922 the university power station started to work, it become a significant event in the life of the collective.