The national economy of Ukraine as a whole was restored on the old technical basis. For its reconstruction it was necessary to create and restore a number of industries: engineering, machine-tool, automotive, chemical, defense, tractor, metallurgical et al., to renovated old and to build new businesses, technically upgrade them.
In 1926 there were held successfully the nationwide and district meetings of representatives of educational institutions, which set out the objectives of universities in relation to the industrialization of the country and ways to solve them. Especially acute was the question of highly qualified personnel capable of leading economic construction, management of production processes, workers' collectives.
To carry out economic plans one must in a short time to raise the technical intelligentsia. This was an important task entrusted to the universities of the country.
In 1925 the KPI in four faculties (chemical, mechanical, electrical and Railways) there were enrolled 1983, and in 1929 - 2,800 students. Note that during this time it was increased the number of female students: if n 1925-26 , their number was no more than 4% of the total number of students, by the end of the 20's - early 30-ies it reached 20% [3, p. 87].
In 1925-26 the number of teachers in KPI was 170, including 36 professors of the first and second categories, 31 staff and more than 100 freelance teachers, 163 of them had higher education, 126 - engineering. Administrative staff consisted of 7 people, technical - 149 [29, p. 25].
In 1925 the Institute was headed by the Board, which consisted of V.F. Bobrov (Chairman, Rector), K. Siminsky (Vice Rector for Academic), B.A. Shvedov (teacher, dean of workers' school), as well as student representatives and trade unions . The deans P.V. Rabtsevich (Department of Transportation Engineers), G.I. Suhomel (mechanical), A.A. Skomorokhov (Electrical Engineering) actively participated in the work of the Board. At the institute there worked educational workshops, chemical plant, shop and other small repair shops. They formed a special production department. A permanent technical department was working under the leadership of the Board[30, p. 23].
The gradual development of the economy has increased the allocation for public education. For example, if n 1923/24 universities and research institutions have been allocated less than 9,4 million rubles., in 1924-25 - only universities got about 14 million rubles and in 1925-26 – 18,6 million rubles. However, these money were insufficient to meet the needs of the higher education system. Public authorities have been forced to temporarily reduce the number of universities. If in 1923/24 in Ukraine they operated 42 universities then in 1924-25 - 38 and in 1925-26 - 35. Since 1927 the number of universities in the country began to rise again [13, p. 78]. They had an enrollment of 22,417 students in 1928 [18, p. 39].
In selecting students it was used the class approach. So, in 1929-30 in KPI : the workers - 44%, the peasants - 18%, intellectuals and civil servants - 35%, other - 3% [2, p. 57]. 1925-26 on worker faculty there were 324 students, including those at the Faculty of Transportation Engineers - 62 Chemical - 69 Electro - 86 mechanical - 107 [29, p. 28]. 1924-25 85 people graduated the worker faculty (WF), in 1925/26 - 119, 1926-27 - 131 [18, p. 47].
Students of the worker faculty studied mathematics, physics, chemistry, Russian and Ukrainian languages, zoology, geography, history, history of economic forms, German, drawing, painting, and other items. About 60 teachers were working with them. There functioned physical-mathematical, linguistic and literary, socio-economic and natural object-methodical commissions. Many pupils WF later became professors, known scientists, among them – K.I. Vashenko, M.L. Kalnibolotsky, Y.P. Gizila and others.
Students received scholarships, there were opened the student canteens and clinics. In higher education, it was created the mutual aid, students are provided with a temporary job. Assistance to students from the state became more and more tangible. So, if in 1928 45% of the students of the Institute received a scholarship, then a decade, their number was more than 80% [2, p. 62].
In the mid-20s the salary of professors and high school teachers was raised. In 1925-26 in Ukraine instead of the previously existing hourly wage was introduced a full-time wage system [133, p. 277]. Each teacher was included in the staff of the university, became a member of the team, performed all kinds of learning activities and the responsibility for his teaching career to the state. It was installed the nominal paid.
One of the major problems of the development of higher education was to provide a sufficient number of qualified university professors and teachers. Most old-school professionals were actively involved in the work. In the words of Professor E.O. Paton, he felt a "connection hundreds of threads, stretched away to the people and by the people to him, finally found his true place in the life" [31, p. 103]. Of course, it was impossible fundamentally solve the problem only with their efforts, so it was started the training of young teachers from the graduate students. The structure of the research department includes heads of departments, heads of sections, researchers and graduate students. On January 1, 1926 research of the department functioned in the 17 universities of the country. In particular, in the KPI there were eight departments [18, p. 12]: the art of building (head prof. K.K. Siminsky), mechanical technology (prof. K.A. Zworykin), physics (prof. A. G. Goldman), hydrology (prof. E.V. Opokov) electrical engineering (prof. Kotelnikov A.P.) Chemistry (prof. V.P. Izhevsky), technology and agricultural production (prof. Kuharenko I.A.) [32, p. 23].
Experience has shown that research department did not justify themselves, they contributed little to the scientific work directly in the universities. A significant part of scientists criticized the organization of research work in the departments for its isolation from the educational process. Criticism of the research departments and the People's Commissariat, on which order they were created, came from the stands of the first (1925) and second (1927) All-Ukrainian Congress of scientists. At the beginning of 1930 scientific research departments were eliminated, replaced with the usual departments, employees are engaged in not only teaching methods, but also in research work [C, p. 128]. This helped raise the level of scientific training in universities.
The Institute has worked on the nomination and selection of the best-trained graduate students. At the beginning of the first Five-Year Plan in the KPI there were 68 graduate students [34, p. 86], of which there were famous scientists, teachers. For example, Dr. Tech. Sciences S.S. Rudnik prepared 45 candidates of sciences [35, p. 375] (the name of S.S. Rudnik was given to the one of the classrooms of the main building). The graduates KPI: academician UkSSR Academy of Sciences prof. M.V. Kornoukhov and Dr. Sci. Sciences I.I. Chernobylsky became the famous scientists. The high achievements in research were connected with the name of Professor S.V. Sorensen (KPI graduated in 1926 he worked as director of the institute of structural mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR). Professors V.E. Vasiliev, I. Ya.Shtaerman, F.P. Belyankin, Y.D/ Sokolov, G.I. Suhomel, V.A. Izbekov, S.S. Rudnik, G. M . Gorodetsky, I. T. Shvets, gifted scientists V.G. Holmsky, Y.P. Gizila, G.A. Preuss, S.I. Tetelbaum, many other teachers and scientists, managers of scientific, educational activities of the Institute came from KPI. Specialists who have graduated the KPI, were working in sensitive areas of economic development in all parts of the country.
In the preparation of new teaching staff it was of great importance the involvement in the pedagogical work of experienced engineers and practitioners capable students deepen their knowledge in scientific groups. In the KPI in all faculties, there were created student groups with sections on departmental specialties. In addition, there was a group on scientific organization of work and terminology translation group. In all faculties there were arranged exhibitions of student works [32, p. 23].
If n 1923/24 there were in scientific groups and workshops 101 people, in the 1924-25 - 1198. After graduation the active members of students scientific groups were enlisted he enlisted on teaching positions.
In 1925-26 the Subject Commissions that are common to all or several departments: the socio-economic, physical, mathematical, foreign languages, structural mechanics, heat engineering, electrical engineering functioned in the Institute[32, p. 23]. For example, at the Faculty of Mechanics in accordance with specialization subject it was worked Commission on thermal engineering, technical disciplines, mechanics, technology, general engineering, automotive industry, thermal power plants; in the faculty of chemistry - inorganic, organic, engineering and mechanical and chemical cycles; at the Faculty of Transportation Engineers - with the land and waterways, engineering, plumbing, natural and mathematical sciences; at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering - a general technical and theoretical subjects, the technology of powerful currents and communication.
Formation of a new engineering of high school demanded changes the whole content of educational and methodical process, the development of new curricula, programs, courses, lectures and workshops that directly meet the urgent tasks. Relevant work was carried out in the KPI. Here it was actively developed a new curricula, textbooks were created. Since 1927 prof. K.K. Siminsky compiled and published a textbook on structural mechanics. In 1930 it was published the textbook "continuous beams". These textbooks covered the latest methods of calculation of the design. On the basis of materials of student diploma works EA Paton compiled a three-volume manual on reconstruction of bridges [31, p. 99].
An important role in the management of educational literature played university libraries. In 1927 KPI library fund numbered 27,516 titles, a significant number of them in the foreign languages. April 21, 1927, it was the first issue's newspaper "Kyiv Polytechnic", which was edited by the student Ivan Le - later known Ukrainian writer.
The connections with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, universities of Moscow, Leningrad, Baku, Kharkov and other cities contributed to the improvement of teaching work in the KPI. Representatives of the Institute participated actively in the scientific meetings and congresses. Materials of such forums were comprehensively discussed in high school. Of great interest is, in particular, materials methodological meeting on industrial and technical education, held in 1926 in Moscow. The meeting dealt with questions about the types of textbooks for high school, teaching methods and knowledge test, a constant production practice, the next task in establishing links with universities in production, summer internship students, scientific organization of labor, and others. [36, p. 29]. Meeting adopted a resolution to improve the pedagogical and teaching work in high schools. It was emphasized that the modern methods of teaching should arouse students' activity in the study of subjects of the curriculum, to give room for self-study training material [36, p. 29].
Ties between higher education and production were constantly strengthened. Since January 1925 the practice has become a mandatory component of the curriculum. During the practice students were required to know more on the economy of production, the economic condition of the company, to develop projects that would enable increased productivity. An overall improvement in the organization of production practices could increase the number of jobs needed for students. In 1925-26, 65% of university students in Ukraine had the industrial practice [3, p. 123]. Together with industry practice in higher education institutes it was established the internship institute, the training period in which, depending on the specialty, was one or two years.
The criterion of the efficiency of universities to improve the learning process, the quality of training of future engineers was the level of professional qualifications of graduates. A survey of knowledge of graduates of higher engineering universities in Ukraine in 1927-28 showed that more than 75% of them worked as an engineer in the production and proved to be good professionals and skilled leaders of production teams.
1925-26 the issue of graduates in the KPI was 62% [18, p. 41], comparing with the maximum pre-revolutionary, and in 1930 was up against in 1928 more than tripled.
In order to raise the level of scientific and theoretical training of specialists the recruitment system of universities in Ukraine in 1926 by the order intake has been replaced by a competitive examination conducted by curiae (workers, peasants, intellectuals and employees). Number of seats for each curia was established in sufficient time to plan the social composition of students. The first adoptions of the new system took place 1926-27 and 1927-28 academic years.
At the end of the 20s one of the important tasks on the way to ensure the national economy became the restructuring of the entire system of higher education and adapt it to the needs and pace of development of the national economy. This meant the unification of higher education and its reorganization on sectoral characteristics. The fact was that the systems of training in universities in Russia and Ukraine were different. In Ukraine, there are two types of higher education institutions - institutions (trained specialists and organizers with a broad theoretical training) and technical ( professionals with narrow qualifications). In Russia, there was only one type of universities - institutions, technical schools were secondary educational institutions. Since all the republics of the former Soviet Union had a single economic plan, it was thought that they had to have the same system and education. Therefore, 1929-30 such a unification of higher education was conducted. Since then, the technical institutions of Ukraine began to prepare for middle qualification, higher institutions - the highest. Most provided training facilities reorganized into the Institute. For example, Kyiv and Volyn Mechanical College joined the mechanical department of KPI. New universities were established by industry associations related faculties and departments of various educational institutions [3, p. 144]. The institute created new independent universities: Civil Engineering; Technology of Light Industry; food processing industry; Agricultural and forestry (the latter subsequently united, transformed into Ukrainian Agricultural Academy). On the basis of the KPI it was formed the Kiev Institute of Civil Aviation Engineers. Mechanical workshop of the Institute became the base for future plant of I. Lepse, electrical - plant "Tochelektropribor" (the modern name of "Rostok").
In February 1930 the Supreme Economic Council decided to establish a number of specialized institutes, departments that existed in universities Polytechnic type. From the faculties KPI there were formed such independent universities: Energy, Engineering, Chemistry and Technology, engineers, rail and water transport. However, in the process of further reorganization in June 1934 Engineering, Power Engineering and Institute of Chemical Technology merged into one institution, known as the Kiev Industrial Institute (the name KPI was up to July 1944.). Acting Director it was appointed M.E. Babin, and from September 1934 M.P. Efimov.
Professors, teachers, staff and students in the KPI spent the years a lot of work to strengthen the material-technical base of the institute. In particular, there were built "energy wing" of the main building, part of the Chemical Corps, which significantly strengthened the material base of the Institute. It was put into operation a new hostel and stadium [37, p. 12]. At the institute there were started functioning power station, broadcasting center, factory, kitchen, clothing and shoe shops, hairdressers, cinema, sports grounds. Since 1934 the Institute has become one of the largest technical universities of the country, its budget is now significantly higher than the pre-revolutionary. If the budget KPI 1913 was 637, 7 thousand rubles, in 1934 - 6.2 million rubles., 1937 - 11.4, then 13.9 million rubles of 1939. [2, p. 60].
It was significantly increased scholarship fund and state appropriations for training students. If in 1928 a scholarship fund was 345.2 thousand rubles, and the cost of education per student per year - about 1 thousand rubles, in 1939 respectively 4,5.mln rubles and 32 thousand. rubles, ie, government spending rose by more than 10 times [2, p. 64]. This resulted in a vast majority of students with scholarships. If in 1927-28 there were received a scholarship 45% of the students at the institute, the 1938-39 83%. The scholarship increased from 23 rubles in 1927-28. to 130-200 rubles in 1938/39 [2, p. 58]. Significant improvement in the material conditions contributed to a marked increase in the number of students and, accordingly, graduates (from 276 people in 1929 to 685 - 1940) [2, p. 67] that there has been of great importance for the national economy.
The data on the dynamics of growth in the number of students in the institute for 30 years [2, p. 57] are given below:
Academic year 1931/32 1932/33 1933/34 1935/36 1936/37 1938/39 1939/40 1940/41
Number of students 2471 2777 3334 3152 3683 3495 3500 3685
The social composition of students was changed. If in 1929-30 among them were working 44%, 18%, peasants, working intellectuals and employees 35%, other 3%, then in 1934/35 respectively 68.8%, 8.6, 21.1 and 1.5% [2, p. 57].
With the increasing number of students it was grew the need for teaching staff, as intensive forms of training, mostly in groups demanded the increased number of highly qualified teachers. Management of the Institute worked hard on recruiting and strengthening personnel. In 1940/41 the faculty already numbered 342 people, including 53 professors, 95 associate professors, 42 senior teachers, 162 teachers and assistants [38, p. 298]. There were among them - Ukrainian Academy of Sciences academicians E.O.Paton, M.P. Kravchuk, V.A. Plotnikov, B.S. Lisin, corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine F.P. Belyankin, V.Y. Vasilyev, S.B. Sorensen, I.Y. Shtaerman, Professors W. F. Bobrov, N.N. Voronin, G.M. Gorodetsky, M.S. Kichigin, A.V. Kobelev, V.V. Ogievskii, P.V. Okulov , S.S. Rudnik, I. T. Shvets, associates Y.I. Bovsunovsky, A.I. Butuzov, O.S.Plygunov, T.V. Putyata, A.P. Ornatskii and many others. Note that 203 of the 342 teachers were the students of the institute who have successfully completed post-graduate studies. So, if in 1936 the Institute there were studied 26 graduate students, then in 1940 - 71 [2, p. 24]. It was increased the number of administrative, technical and educational support personnel. If on 1 January 1935 it numbered 621 people, it was in 1941 already 931 [39, p. 196].
In the early 30-ies in the universities and colleges of the country it was introduced laboratory-brigade system. Classes are held in small student teams. Teachers were given the task and monitor their implementation. As tasks are performed collectively and often not all team members have been actively involved in this, and the verification is based on a report or message one of the team members, the learning was deteriorated significantly.
Similarly it was carried the course design: projects were carried out mainly by one or two students from the brigade, and the remaining members were copying it, sometimes the task of designing divided into parts by the number of team members so that each student has only been a small part of the work, so the projects were generally poorly developed . A division into faculties was not existed. In the first year, all students learn the general curriculum, the second - were divided on the chosen specialty.
For students of all disciplines it was set a single term of training - four years and 50 days. Each academic year was divided into three terms of ten decades. Third, sixth, eighth and first half of the twelfth trimester set aside for industrial practice in the workplace. The last (optional) trimester students worked longer as interns, and the position of acting engineers from selected specialties.
Laboratory-brigade training method provided accelerated software industry professionals. Graduation projects - the final stage of preparation of engineers - were canceled due to the prolonged stay of students in practice, there is little to consolidate the acquired knowledge in the institute and work experience. Said method of teaching was not conducive to training in accordance with the requirements facing higher education in the years of rapid industrial development and technical reconstruction of the national economy.
Thus, it became necessary a thorough restructuring of the educational process. In September 1932 it was restored the previous system of classes: lectures, laboratory work, design and industrial training in enterprises. From 1933/34 students take exams again, defended the course and degree projects. It was also reopened the division into faculties and elevated the role of the Department as a major educational and research managers in technical colleges. Great importance was attached to student groups, independent work of students, develop their creativity. In 1934 there were created in the institute four faculties - general technical, engineering, energy, Chemical Technology, which trained engineers in fifteen specialties [38, p. 6]. The number of faculties was increasing annually. In 1940/41 there were in KPI eight faculties: Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Technology, Thermal, Radio, paper and cellulose, evening [40, p. 298]. There were increased the demands on teachers who gave lectures, seminars and laboratory work, and the like. In order to better methodological support of training and in accordance with the recommendations of the first meeting of the Union workers in higher education, which took place on May 15, 1939, in all departments the plans and programs were readjusted. The scope and content intended for the study of the material, developed a technique of teaching of many disciplines, preparing textbooks and manuals, and strengthened the relationship of individual courses. It was expanded the practice of mutual attendance of teachers, increased requirements for the organization of independent work of students increased their responsibility for the quality of education. Students take the exam after a full course of study for each subject entered in the curriculum. There were set up special State Examination Commissions. For several years the teachers of the Institute prepared a series of new textbooks and manuals: "Equipment pulp and paper industries" (V.F. Bobrov), "Theory of metallurgical processes" (V.Y.Vasilyev), "Power stations and networks" (G. M . Gorodetsky, AV Orlovsky), "Hydraulic" (E.M. Haimovich), "Regulation of active and reactive power in the power system" (V.G. Holmsky) [2, p. 78].
In the curricula it was arranged the sequence of study subjects, reduced the number of those that have been studied simultaneously. This eliminated the excessive overload students and free up time for independent work in the library, classrooms, laboratories. The measures taken were of fundamental importance, given that in1928-29 academic year on electro technical faculty since 4100 teaching hours in special items was given less than 200, and throughout the study, students were to study 132 subjects [C, p. 210]. All this created in the institute creative atmosphere contributed to the strengthening of discipline, strict compliance with educational problems, improve performance.
Significant advances have been made in these years in laboratory studies, the organization of the course and diploma projects. In all faculties there were equipped laboratories, the number of which in 1940 reached 50. This has contributed to improving the quality of practical work, greater involvement of students to carry out experimental work on the orders of industrial enterprises (Kiev machine-tool plant of Gorky, the plant "Bolshevik", etc. .) and research on the subject departments [2, p. 69].
There were changes in the organization of practical training of students. According to the new regulations on manufacturing practices, approved in March 1938, the commissariats assigned for the institutions well-equipped technology enterprises. So, for the Kiev Industrial Institute there were fixed such enterprises as Gorky Automobile Plant, Moscow plant "Electric power", Kiev Machine Tool Plant, the plant "Bolshevik", "Red digger", Kharkov Electrical Engineering Plant, Novokramatorsk plant Dneproges, Stalingrad GRES, Donenergo, Kyivenergo et al. [39, p. 27].
Every year at the meetings of the Council of the Institute, faculties and departments there were raised the issues of industrial practice, in particular, the heads of practices were appointed, the enterprises were fixed, summed up the practice [39, p. 27].
The main result of the work of the Institute for the training of specialists for the national economy was the defense of the graduation projects. To prepare graduation projects at all main chairs the special offices were set. In particular it was well-organized diploma design at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering. Here at the office of graduate design it was functioned library of literature (over 4,000 items), which had a large number of manuals for the design, drawings, samples of completed projects. The task for the design must comply with the requirements of a real industry.
It was set the volume of the graduation project: six - nine sheets of drawings and 250 pages of printed format explanatory note. For management diploma projects there were involved as staff members of the department, as well as highly qualified specialists in production, contributing to improving the quality of graduation projects. Thus, of the 33 graduates of 1940 who had a profession Engineering Technology, 11 received an honors degree [2, p. 129]. In total from the 633 graduates of the institute 1939/40 62.7% defended thesis projects as "excellent", 29.4% - as "good", and only 7.9% - as "satisfactory", 14.5% - received diplomas with honors.
A major role in the life of the university team has played a large circulation newspaper "Proletarian Student" (since 1936 .. "Soviet student"), before the war left more than 300 issues. The newspaper covers the various aspects of life of the Institute, contributed to correct deficiencies and improve the learning process, labor discipline, welfare of students, helped raise the collective leadership of the Institute in the spirit of high responsibility for their work.
Київський Політехнічний інститут Нарис історії.- Київ: "Наукова думка", 1995.- 320 с.