Vladimir Grigoriev and Fyodor Tereshchenko. Different destinies, common path

Names of Kiev aircraft designers Vladimir Grigoriev and Fyodor Tereshchenko are surrounded by an aura of mystery. As a rule, they are remembered, calling the names of outstanding students and graduates of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, who tied their life with the aviation, but even in reputable books on the history of technology it is quite difficult to find details about their work or, especially, about themselves. Meanwhile, V. Grigoriev and F. Tereshchenko were not only prominent figures among the founders of the first national aircraft, but were also quite well known in their time organizers of serial aircraft production in our country.

Despite the fact that their origins and background (apart from a few years of working together) were very different, both of them did not fully realize their potential of the engineer and technical manager, which, however, does not neglect their contribution to the creation of the foundation of the national aviation industry. For many years, their names were concealed for various reasons, and only now, thanks to the efforts of enthusiasts they return in the context of the history of national art and applied science. Unfortunately, some of the steps to restore the lives of both, we can only dotted - too many gaps left after decades of silence ... But even what we know, tells about them as quite significant figures of the initial period of aviation in our country.

Vladimir Grigoriev. Contrary to tradition

Life path Vladimir Grigoriev seemed to be determined from cradle: Cadet Corps, cadet school, serving as an officer, perseverance and some luck - Military Academy, and probably in the end of his career - a solid rank and position anywhere in the War Department or the General Staff. He was born November 7, 1883. His father was a graduate of the Oryol Cadet Corps and the Mikhailovsky Artillery School, a member of many foreign campaigns, holder of several orders of Lieutenant Colonel Peter Nikitivich Grigoriev, and the mother - daughter of Colonel artillery, Maria Ippolitovna (nee Verjbitska). Moreover the place of birth of the future aircraft - the city of Kronstadt naval outpost capital of the empire – should set the boy on these dreams and plans. But everything changed wtih his father's death in 1892. His mother remarried and the family moved in Kiev. And while the stepfather, Semen Yakovlevich Narushkevich also was a military, Vladimir in 1894 was sent not to the Kiev Cadet Corps, but to the Kiev real school.

Such secondary education, as opposed to the cadet corps, were open and, in contrast to the classical gymnasium, gave to his disciples education more relevant to the needs of real life. Beyond this, such kind of education provided the initial acquisition of technical knowledge and skills. Vladimir successfully completed the course and after school extra classes for those realists who wanted to continue their education, he was faced with the question of choosing a site for further training. Graduates of real schools have the right to enter into higher technical educational institutions, on the mathematical and medical faculties of universities and military schools (primarily military engineering profile). His mother – the wife of an officer did not thought for the other son's career, except the military, but Vladimir Grigoriev decided to break the family tradition - in 1902 he joined the mechanical department of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute of Emperor Alexander II. This decision was the first step in an independent life.

If for many Grigoriev college classmates the years of study were years of carefree youth and the search for their vocation, for him this was the period of serious challenges. The reason was elementary lack of money. The mother and the stepfather were unable to support him financially (or after a "random" choice of place of study they did not want to), so he had to make a living and to education. He earned what he could: the majority of poorer students gave lessons, doing drawings for factory "Arsenal". And yet he was selling his drawings and watercolors. He became interested in fine arts studying in real school and, apparently, the teaching drawing was in the institute on a very high level. An indirect confirmation of this, by the way, is the fact that the graduates of the institute were the famous Kiev architects Paul Aleshin, Evgeny Ermakov, Alexander Krivosheev, a very interesting artist Konstantin Krizhitsky and others. In Kiev Polytechnic Institute is was included in the list of compulsory subjects not only drawings, but also art drawing. One of the teacher there was, for example, the classic of Ukrainian painting Nicholas Pimonenko.

However, despite all the efforts, Vladimir Grigoriev was chronically lacking of the money, and twice - in 1903 and 1904 - was even excluded from the Institute for the late payment of tuition fees. However, the desire to learn was so strong that he repeatedly found ways and means to return to the student's desk, although his training period lasted more than ten years - until 1915.

At the same time, despite the constant deprivation, in 1905 Vladimir Grigoriev married Eugenia Iosifovna Vishatetskaya (incidentally, also the daughter of the military). In 1907 and 1909 in a young family there were born two daughters - Nina and Maria. Sense of duty to his wife and children forced Grigoriev to combine study with work - he even joined the Kiev factory "Arsenal". Although he worked in a factory material accounting department, but did not forget about the profession of the engineer. He was trying to invent and design something. The most successful result of his then-technical creativity became horizontal spindle machine for a special type of drilling and longitudinal grooves in the wheels of artillery shells and other products. This project was approved by the technical department of the factory "Arsenal", and soon the machine was manufactured at the Tula Arms Plant. However, when it was brought to the plant, Grigoriev was not there - in October 1910 he again interrupted training at the institute and enthusiastically took up another job.

Familiarity with aviation

It should be noted that the year 1910 in Kiev was marked by extraordinary explosion of interest in the development of aeronautics and aviation enthusiasm. It started from Kiev in April of that year. The famous sportsman and aviator Sergey Utochkin toured the Russian cities with a demonstration flight at "Farman". Here on Syretska race field in late May the first apparatus of the domestic construction was raised in the air by his designer - acting extraordinary professor in the department of building art of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Prince Alexander Kudashev. In a week and a half an another aircraft, built by local aviation enthusiasts, students polytechnics Fedor Bylinkin, Igor Sikorsky and Basil Jordan - airplane "BIS-1" took off. In the late summer of 1910, too, the Kiev Polytechnic students brothers Kasyanenko implemented in Cherkassy several flights on a plane of their own design. All of these events were widely covered in Kiev newspapers and, of course, attracted the attention of not only greedy wanting to sensationalism public but also people associated with the technique.

Actually, the aircraft hobby was spread throughout the Russian Empire. In the spring of 1910 in the capital St. Petersburg there was organized by the All-Russian Imperial flying clubs First International Aviation Week, which was attended by one Russian and five foreign aviators, including even one woman - beauty from France Baroness de la Roche.

This event was such a success that the management decided to hold the second in September this week, but with an expanded list of participants and competitions. And if the first all-Russian celebration of aviation just passed successfully, the second caused quite a stir: newspapers wrote about one hundred seventy-five thousand spectators at the specially built Commandant airport, tens of thousands of crews around him, thousands of policemen guarding the order of nation-wide records set brave airmen, and the growth of domestic pilots skill. Two weeks later it was happened the terrible accident airplane "Farman-IV» and the tragic death of its pilot - Captain Corps Marine Engineers Leo Matsievich Kravchuk, who became the first victim of domestic aviation. A few days later the whole country wept over the song "Death Aviator", "like a hawk, like an eagle soaring high in the sky so boldly. / Without fear he cut through the fog clouds. / Under our fleet and for the sacred cause / Died in the prime of life brave captain "and read a poem by Alexander Blok" The Aviator ".

Aviation was literally on everyone's lips, but few could see serious prospects of general enthusiasm. Among those few were primarily engineers and scientists whose work was connected with the solution of specific technical problems. Recognized competence in the nascent industry became a professor at Moscow University and the Moscow Higher Technical School, the supervisor Kuchinsky Aerodynamic Institute - the first research institution of such a profile in Europe - Nikolai Zhukovsky. He managed to create his own national school of applied mechanics and fluid dynamics and to rally the most curious and talented researchers. His students have worked in many higher educational institutions of the Russian Empire, including the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. Not surprisingly, from the very beginning of the school within its walls it was born the movement for the creation of aeronautic branch, initiated by the pupil of Zhukovsky Professor Nikolai Artemyev. He could not open a faculty, but after a few years at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute it was emerged section aeronautic research student organization - mechanical group. And then there was appeared a separate Aeronautic circle, with its permanent de facto leader another disciple of Zhukovsky - Professor Nicholas Delaunay. This Circle was very popular among the polytechnics and not without reason; during its existence in his work there were participated over 400 students. In the spring of 1909, it became the nucleus around which it was formed a new social organization - Kiev Society for Aeronautics (CTS), which, like the Aeronautic circle KPI, played a very important role in the development of Ukrainian aircraft construction. It is enough to say that for several years the Kiev aviation enthusiasts designed, built and tested about 40 different types of aircraft - aircraft, helicopters and even balloon - more than any other city in the Russian Empire. It is interesting that after a certain detachment from the world aviation centers and the capital of the state, most of these designs have been very original and different from those which were built abroad.

Common interest in aviation infected also Grigoriev. Despite his busy schedule, he probably attended lectures on aeronautics, which professor Delaunay read in the aeronautic circle, although evidence of its active participation in the work of this organization did not survive. But from the documentary it is clear that he became one of the most active members. Moreover, his name is on the list of the founders of the society, and from November 1909 to November 1910 he was even a member of its Scientific and Technical Committee. Obviously, in this period it is started the cooperation with Fyodor Tereshchenko that allowed Grigoriev to find out what he wanted to devote himself.

Fyodor Tereshchenko. Wealth and "desire for the common good"

Among the founding members of the Kiev Society of Aeronautics Fyodor Tereshchenko - the youngest son of the Kiev family Sugar, known not only for its rich and beautiful collection of works of art but also charity - figured prominently. Business acumen representatives of several generations of the family, their entrepreneurial activity and attention to technological innovations have provided it with prosperity and opportunity possessed by no means all, even the old aristocratic family. All this was combined with honesty and understanding of the needs of society, that in the end gave to the family Tereshchenko title of nobility. New coat of arms of the noble family decorated the motto, "Committed to the common good." These were not just words. On the donations of family Tereshchenko in Hlukhiv - hometown of the founder of the dynasty Art Jakovljevic, there were built vocational school, male and female high school, bank building. After moving to Kiev, his sons built a house for the Mariinsky orphanage on the corner Pankovskaya and Nikolsko Botanical street. It has survived to this day. Every year they gave the significant amounts for rooming and maternity shelters, played a crucial role in the creation of "free hospital for unskilled workers ". They annually made large cash contributions to the 1st Kiev gymnasium and training of ten high school students ... And the financial participation of the family Tereshchenko were built and worked Urban School, Polytechnic Institute, 1st Commercial College, Kiev-Podolsky women's gymnasium, Trinity People's House Society literacy, City Museum of antiquities and art, real school, Rubezhovsky colony, Pirogov Hospital, Church of the Intercession on Solomenko, the church of Alexander Nevsky Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Pokrovsky Monastery and much more ...

Fyodor Tereshchenko was the third in the generation of merchant dynasty. He fully inherited from ancestors energy and an avid interest in everything new and, at the same time, awareness of the need to help those who need help. Therefore, he was not only an active member, but also one of its main, in modern language, sponsors. He paid the rent for the office of the Company, first gave 3000 rubles for the resettlement own airfield in sets, regularly donated significant sums for the organization of various aviation activities. However, for young Tereshchenko (he was born November 11, 1888), this financial burden was not particularly burdensome. From his father he received a huge inheritance. He had the house and estate in Kiev in the Volyn province, was co-owner of sugar factories. The work of the society attracted him with the opportunity to communicate with like-minded people - people who are addicted to aviation as passionately as he did.

Unlike other members of his family, his life Fyodor Tereshchenko decided to devote not to the commerce but technology, and in 1907 he joined the mechanical department of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. He studied willingly, enthusiastically. In general, he had a passionate nature, and married being second year student. His choice was well-born aristocrat - young Countess Beatrice, Theophilus Elizabeth Sophia Catarina Keyserling. A year later, the young couple had a daughter.

V. Grigoriev and F. Tereshchenko. Start of Cooperation

In general, it seems that F. Tereshchenko and V. Grigoriev had quite a lot in common: both refused to follow well-established family tradition, both married early, both were addicted to technology and designing, but, more importantly, they were both in love with aviation. Only their opportunities were different ...

First own aircraft Fyodor Tereshchenko got in May 1909. It was a plane "Bleriot XI" purchased in France. He was taken to his estate Krasnoe, Berdichevsky district of Volyn province (now the township of Anrushevsky region, Zhitomir province), where he enthusiastically acquainted with the peculiarities of its construction, gradually mastered taxiing and steering technique. He became acquainted with other Kyiv Polytechnics, who were fond of aviation, established correspondence with Nikolai Zhukovsky. And that Zhukovsky November 30, 1909 proposed three students Kiev - Fyodor Tereshchenko, Igor Sikorsky and Fedor Bylinkin to take part in the aeronautic exhibition, which was dedicated to the scheduled end of December - beginning of January XII congress of scientists and doctors in Moscow.

Fyodor Tereshchenko immediately decided to go to the exhibition with an airplane of his own design, and on 1 December eagerly set to work. But not alone - as a close aide he invited Vladimir Grigoriev. They worked every day from morning until late at night, but later it became clear that most deadlines are not cope. There were invited three other students, were soon ready drawings, and then the individual parts and components of the aircraft. Until December 25 aircraft, built by type monoplane "Bleriot XI," the engine "Anzani" power of 25 hp, was ready. Moreover, an album of his drawings and photographs was ready too (amazing by today's efficiency!). I must say that it was not an exact copy of the prototype: the plane Tereshchenko had other dimensions, several otherwise posted its individual components, was another tail. The exhibition this exhibit was a great success, and F. Tereshchenko even made at the beginning of January 1910 a report on the peculiarities of its construction at the meeting aeronautic subsection Congress. It should be noted that this was the only aircraft displayed at the exhibition.

With this apparatus it has begun a long and fruitful cooperation Vladimir Grigoriev and Fyodor Tereshchenko.

Work in Krasnoe

To the aircraft industry and its prospects Fyodor Tereshchenko treated seriously and in 1909 organized in his own estate aviation workshops. There has been built his first machine, there were realized and his other projects. At the first stage of existence of this enterprise up to 25 employees worked there. There was an airport nearby. For this purpose it was adapted grassy field area of 41 hectares, which before was just pasture for cattle.

After the success at the Moscow Congress of Naturalists Tereshchenko enthusiastically expanded the business. In a short period the studio actually turned into a small specialized company that is engaged not only in experimental aircraft, but also the manufacture of airplanes on order. The number of its employees increased. Organization of modern aircraft production require significant investments: in 1910-1915 years Tereshchenko spent directly on the shop about 150,000 rubles and about 720 thousand rubles for the construction in the estate of the great house and other buildings. There he lived as well as the designers workshops and aviators. It is interesting that, along with other test pilots in Tereschenko there was one of the first Russian female pilots - a former actress, who was fascinated by aviation, Lyubov Galanchikova. Tereshchenko collaborated with young Kiev aircraft designers, such as Vasily Jordan and Dmitry Grigoryevich. With the latter, incidentally, he built two light sport monoplane G-2 and G-3 (sometimes you can find the designation "Tereshchenko number 2" and "Tereshchenko number 3"). Grigorovich was the designer and organizer of their manufacture and philanthropist - Fedor Tereshchenko.

Vladimir Grigoriev worked in Tereshchenko from the very beginning of its business activity until autumn 1915. Formally, he has consistently served as a draftsman, head shops, machinery, designer, head of the technical office assistant (then called deputies) Director for the technical part. In fact, he had to perform a variety of work: for example, during the development and preparation of the first airplane Tereshchenko he was his leading designer. Moreover, Vladimir Grigoriev made the largest contribution to the building of aircraft production in Krasnoe - it is all the more difficult that the company started its activities in the full sense of the words from scratch.

Among the few researchers aviation, turned to the history of the airline in Krasnoe, since the Soviet times there was a tradition to believe that Fyodor Tereshchenko not participated in the design of aircraft, which were built in his enterprise and had his name in the title, and the true author of these structures was Grigoriev. Later, this view was somewhat corrected: it was argued that F. Tereshchenko was only the co-author realized his company designs. All this is hardly fair. Firstly, because the planes were developed in Krasnoe not only by Grigoriev. Thus, among the most successful designs, built on enterprise Tereshchenko, it has already been mentioned G. planes and braced monoplane, which were designed with Sergei Zembinsky and French engineer and aviator Alfred Pishof who worked chief pilot of Tereshchenko. And, secondly, discovered in the archives of Kiev by the researcher V. Tatarciuc profile V. Grigoriev of its design and the invention provides no basis for such claims.

Thus, there is not enough materials to determine the degree of participation Tereshenko in the development of Krasnoe airplanes. The only thing for sure it can be said - that each of the aircraft had a significant part of the soul, experience and work of Vladimir Grigoriev.

But biplane designed and built in the estate after the First World War, one can rightfully name the favorite child of V. Grigoriev. But about it below.

Still trying to finish the institute, Grigoriev has repeatedly appealed to the administration of the KPI to allow him to pay off outstanding debts for training, given its difficult financial situation and poor health. However, he could not restore in the institute. He needed to look for other opportunities for continuing education. The solution was found: in 1911 he decided to go to study abroad (tangible opportunities to learn after the start of cooperation with Tereshchenko had appeared). He managed to finish the aviation school «L'ekole piricuse d'aeronautique» in Paris (perhaps not without financial assistance Tereshchenko) and an internship at the aerodynamic laboratory Eiffel. After graduating, he naturally returned to work in Krasnoe.

Fyodor Tereshchenko also did not finish the institute. Wanting to devote himself to business and design activities in the field of aeronautics and citing family reasons, in 1912, he filed a petition for dismissal. Interestingly, the certificate issued to him listened items were only excellent grades, except for two fours - the architectural drawings and building art.

In 1913 Chervonivski workshop received the first military order - for the manufacture of aircraft "Tereschenko number 5bis." It was designed by Alfred Pishofom bracing airplane. It has implemented the ability to provide rapid assembly and disassembly of the aircraft for delivery by road (it could be prepared for transport by 3 minutes). The cable control system used rollers; the plane had a system of self - a device driver to start the engine without the aid of ground personnel. On 7 October the same year, A. Pishof gave this machine Officer aeronautic school in Gatchina.

Soon, in addition to the original airplanes, the company began to produce Tereshchenko aircraft commissioned by the military. They were designed for reconnaissance flights "Farman-XXII", "Moran-Saulnier," and during the war - "Voisin". In some of these devices Tereshchenko with plant engineers have made some design changes. No wonder after improving the customer one of the machines - Aeronautical part of the Main Military-Technical Department of the General Staff – gave the new airplane the name "Moran-Saulnier-umbrella" system Tereshchenko. "

In 1914, on the eve of the First World War there were produced in the workshop 2 aircraft per month, and their real annual capacity estimated at 50 airplanes. The serial orders contributed to the expansion of the enterprise - the company for the first years of its existence has begun to make a profit, which increased the number of employees and to purchase the necessary equipment, in particular, besides the additional metal and woodworking machines, has been acquired forge and 2 welders. Now there worked here not 25, but 120 people (a year later, in September 1915, in the statements for salary alone there were already 186). Workshops were renamed in an airplane factory, which at that time actually were.

The War Years

War and a real threat to the occupation of the estate forced the company's management to take steps to his rescue. It was decided to relocate the factory in Kiev and expand production to 150 planes a year. It was, incidentally, one of the conditions of the military department, whose members wanted to have guarantees precise and accurate execution of their orders. Preliminary plan for the transfer of production areas of the enterprise provides for the acquisition of the land area of not less than 1500 sq. yards, construction of new buildings and increasing the number of staff to 368 people. For this purpose must be allocated 23100 rubles. However, the front ever closer to Kiev, and in connection with the uncertainty in the position Tereshchenko, in the end, decided to transfer the company to Moscow. He and V. Grigoriev were at that time in France as part of a special commission to receive aviation and automotive property for airforce, their duty to evacuate completely fell on the shoulders of a business executive K. Vashkevich. In August 1915, equipment and materials of the staff were transferred to Moscow. The plant is temporarily located at Khodynka, where they were desployed and also power-train workshops for the repair of aviation equipment of the army, created by F. Tereshchenko early in the war. From its own funds Fyodor Tereshchenko paid salaries to officers, civil servants and lower ranks workers of the train. By the way, the secretary of aviation technical issues (today would say, chief engineer) train was appointed Vladimir Grigoriev.

This train-workshop gave high performance: in some months his staff repaired to 55-60 airplanes. Through their hands 30 different types of aircraft and up to 15 types of engines passed. In the field, the repair was carried out in a specially designed for this purpose tent hangar. For them F. Tereshchenko even received a patent from the Ministry of Trade and Industry.

However, the owner failed to establish full operation of the plant. There were too many problems with the production facilities, organization of work at the new location, obtaining imported components, selection and placement of personnel. So after not too long negotiations Chervonivsky plant was sold to the Moscow factory "Dux" - one of the largest aircraft manufacturing plants in Russia then. At the end of 1915 - beginning of 1916 this company was transferred to a variety of equipment, materials and finished products Chervonivsky plant in the amount of more than 86 000 rubles. Several airplanes "Farman XXII" varying degrees of readiness and the remains of the property were sold at retail.

In early 1916, Vladimir Grigoriev was recalled from abroad - for the completion of the construction of the projected them on the eve of the war plane and appointed designer mobile workshop № 2. The plane, which was supposed to finish Grigoriev, was not quite normal for a firm Tereshchenko primarily for its scheme. It was enough for the completed forms double biplane (formerly a factory in Krasnoe produced only monoplanes). A characteristic feature was its ability to change during the flight angle of attack of the wing - the scheme, Grigoriev experimented in Kiev and other designers - famous pilot P. Nesterov and Polytechnic students Kasyanenko brothers. Designed Grigoriev box wings if needed could change the angle of installation of the fuselage, turning around the hinge joints of the front spar. This greatly reduces the length of the wing of the takeoff and landing and allows to increase the speed. Interestingly, the sweep angle of the wings was at that time quite large - up to 10 °. Aircraft equipped with engine one hundred power "Monosupap" developed a pretty decent for those times speed of 155 km / h and could carry a payload of 360 kg. For comparison: Double scout "Moran-umbrella", which was then in service in the Russian army had a top speed of 118 km / h and could carried a load of 275 kg; single speed fighter "Nieuport-17" and "21-Nieuport" had 150-160 km / h, and the payload - 175-180 kg.

There were decided to build the aircraft in the open in the fall of 1915 aviation workshops Kiev Polytechnic Institute, and until August 1916, it was ready. According to the documents of the time, it was called "Tereschenko-VII», although the literature is more common name of "Airplane F. Tereshchenko and V. Grigoriev," and sometimes - just "plane V. Grigoriev." In this case, it never disputed that the main developer of the unit was Vladimir Grigoriev.

To test the new car was sent to the factory "Dux", where in December of the same year it has experienced in the air the pilot enterprises A. Haber-Vlinsky. The results were quite satisfactory, and the aircraft returned to Kiev for improvements and minor changes, taking into account comments received after the flight. New tests have been carried out in Kiev at the airport "Post-Volyn" (now on the site is an airport, "Juliani") on September 16, 1917. They were also quite successful, but during the landing gear hit the sand field road, crosses the field at an angle of 45 °, and the resulting machine failed through the left wing, suffered minor damage. Neither the pilot nor his passenger were damaged, and the selection committee praised the vitality and good flight characteristics of the structure. At this work on the plane because of the known historical circumstances was stopped ...

After wars and revolutions

The collapse of the domestic aviation industry began in February 1917. October has only accelerated this process. Less than a year from 12,000 professionals involved in the various air, engine building and aggregate plants in the workplace there were left only fanatically devoted to aviation. A large majority in search of work left the profession, many came to the front, some emigrated.

Fyodor Tereshchenko also went abroad. Little is known about his life in exile. Some publications even opinion found that he had died during the Civil War. In fact, he went to France and lived in Paris until his last days. He died Jan. 30, 1950.

Vladimir Grigoriev stayed. And stayed in the air, though now his work was not so much the nature of Design as administrative and organizational. From July 1917 to February 1, 1919, he worked in the aviation department of mechanical workshops KPI - first assistant to the head, and then the head. In February 1919, after the second coming of Soviet power in Kiev, workshops were handed over to the Office of the Red Air Fleet, and Vladimir Grigoriev was appointed Assistant Chief of Aviation Management District Airforce Ukraine. He then worked as head of a few months first technical economic, and then the scientific and technical departments of the Main Directorate of Military Air Fleet in Ukraine. In July of the same year he returned to the workshop KPI (more precisely, then there is military aviation workshops at KPI), now as their chief. Just a month later the situation at the front changed (remember, the Civil War was in full swing), and under the pressure of Denikin, the Bolsheviks were forced to leave Kiev. Evacuation workshops began three days before the surrender of the city, so almost all of the most valuable - 5 cars, all tools, a large part of the materials, wood, two typewriters and even samovar (!) - managed to take. The property has been relocated to Moscow and Grigoriev was appointed senior engineer of technically settlement of the Main Directorate of the Military Air Force of the Republic, and soon - the chief of the 16th avia-train.

In March 1920, after the third establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine, he was again sent back to survey the state of the aviation business. During this period, V. Grigoriev was moved to the Office of the Military Air Fleet in Ukraine for the translation and publication of the work of his French teacher Eiffel "Air resistance in aviation", prepared a guide for aircraft designers, fitters and aircraft technicians He has written several popular science articles on aviation. In addition, Vladimir Grigoriev organized at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute course entitled "School in aviation."

Then he again had to leave for a while Kiev because of another occupation - this time the troops of Marshal Pilsudski. But this period did not last long - from May 6 to June 12, 1920. Together with the troops Grigoriev returned, and in August-September on the instructions of the Executive aviation industry plants (Golovkomavia) - the first Soviet special state authority on aviation industry - has prepared a draft of uniting all associated with the production and repair of aircraft and vehicles, Kiev workshops and fleets into a single structure. It was planned to create a powerful company with its own airfield, with a good, as far as possible in the war-torn country, instrumental base, with its engineering and staff. By the way, V. Grigoriev, with his own vision of the organization of such an enterprise, expressed doubts about the possibility of created in Kiev State Aviation Plant № 12 (now famous State enterprise "Kyiv Aviation Plant" Aviant ") to produce aircraft. During the retreat the Poles almost destroyed the machines of Fifth avia group, on the basis of which it was created, the room are not heated, skilled labor is almost gone. Fortunately, his doubts were not confirmed - six months later the plant started to repair aircraft and aircraft engines, although the cost is really a great effort. The first plane went out of the gate of the enterprise in just five years.

And Vladimir Grigoriev, at this time, was sent to the city Alexandrovka (1921 - Zaporozhye) to the factory aircraft engines "Deca" to examine the status and organization of repair of aircraft. It was young, created before the revolution branch of the Petrograd "Joint Stock Company of electromechanical structures". This enterprise produced the first series engines kind of “Merscedes” in November 1916. These engines were produced exclusively from domestic materials and components. Incidentally, it is also strongly affected by the turbulent war years and only began to recover. The new plant was named "State Aviation Plant № 9" (now worldwide known Zaporozhye JSC "Motor Sich"). January 2, 1921 Grigoriev was appointed the chief engineer and at the same time the head of its aircraft manufacturing department. Part of the equipment for him by order Golovkomavia was seized from workshops KPI. With new hopes some of the Kiev aviation specialists moved also to a new location. However, these expectations at the time did not materialize. At least for Grigoriev. Constant hard work in cold rooms, grueling trips, poor diet, very low wages, which made him constantly look for side earnings, undermined his health. Vladimir Grigoriev was ill with pulmonary tuberculosis. He could not work anymore and September 22, 1921 filed to the head of the aviation department at Ukrpromvoenmor report for his release from service, with a simultaneous request to allocate him and his family a place on the train to return to Kiev.

Resignation for health reasons he received only at the end of October 1921. He could not get any help for the treatment. Destitute, he was in a quandary: his wife was seek to, his daughters needed to eat normally, but there was no money. He has been forgotten. He died May 4, 1922. The new owners of the country, actively used his knowledge and experience, did not even notice his death. Only his family for decades stored memory and documents related to his life and work. Only thirty-five years after the death of Vladimir Grigoriev by decision of the Kiev City Council his widow started to receive the pension ...

Michael Zgurovsky Rector NTUU "KPI", academician
На фото: Будувати літак вирішили у відкритих восени 1915 року авіаційних майстернях Київського політехнічного інституту, і до серпня 1916 року він був готовий. За документами того часу він називався «Терещенко-VII», хоча в літературі частіше зустрічається назва «Літак Ф. Терещенка та В. Григор’єва», а іноді – просто «літак В. Григор’єва». При цьому ніде не заперечується, що основним розробником апарата був саме Володимир Григор’єв.