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Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov. Way to science


Фото. Ломоносов Михайло Васильович

November 19 - the birthday of M.V.Lomonosov - a man who is rightly called the founder of the science and higher education in Russia, one of the founders of modern Russian language and poetry. "Combining the extraordinary strength of will with extraordinary strength of the concept, Lomonosov embraced all branches of education. The thirst for knowledge was the strongest passion of this soul, full of passions. The historian, rhetorician, mechanic, chemist, mineralogist, artist and poet, he experienced everything and everything has got. The first he deepens in the history of the fatherland, approves the rules of public language, makes laws and samples of classical rhetoric, with the unfortunate Richmann anticipates the opening of Franklin, establishes a factory. He builds a colossus, gives artistic works, and finally reveals the true sources of our poetic language "- wrote about him Alexander Pushkin.

Life path of Lomonosov, its role in the development of science and culture, is explored in hundreds of books and thousands of articles, many of which are available on the Internet. Therefore, it would be superfluous to tell the newspaper that if you want everyone can easily find himself. But we can not ignore the fact, what is often overlooked by those who glorifies genius, but must remember the students and teachers: all the achievements of Lomonosov have a basis the knowledge and skills that he learned while studying. Our story is about what, where and how he studied.

MV Lomonosov was born November 19, 1711 in a peasant family, Vasiliy Dorofeyevich Lomonosov in the village Mishaniskoe, Arkhangelsk province, which was on the big island in the middle of the Northern Dvina River opposite the town Holmogorka 140 kilometers from the White Sea. From the age of 10 with his father Michael made many months to go to sea for hundreds of miles from home. Impressions from these trips, certainly contributed to the development of the boy. An important key to all achievements of Lomonosov, as a scientist and educator, there was acquired from childhood habit of daily hard work. In adulthood, he wrote: "The lazy man in a dishonest alone is similar with a fixed water marsh, which, apart from the stench and despicable vermin, produce nothing."

Father Michael was illiterate. He was taught by his neighbor - the peasant Ivan Shubin (his son - Fedot Shubin - with the support of Lomonosov become famous sculptor and in 1792 created his famous marble sculpture portrait) and deacon Semyon Sabel'nikov . Michael went very well - two years later began to read in the church "Psalms" and "Lives of the Saints" and was considered the best reader in the village. In 1722, in the house of the priest's son Christopher Dudin the first time in his life saw secular books - "Grammar" Meletios Smotritsky and "Arithmetic" Leonti Magnitsky. After the death of H.Dudin summer 1724 his descendants gave these books to Mikhail, and they formed the basis of his primary education.

Aspiring knowledge Lomonosov in December 1730 with a fish wagon train left for Moscow, taking with him "Grammar" and "Arithmetic". In early January 1731, he enrolled in "Mathematics and Navigation" school, located in the Sukharev Tower, and on January 15, posing as the son of a nobleman, he entered the Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy at Zaikonospassky monastery (called the Spassky school).

There were in the academy was four lower class ("phara", "infima", "grammar", "sintaksima"), two medium ("piitika" and "rhetoric") and two higher ("philosophy" and "theology"). For each of the first three classes it was given four or six months, the classes "sintaksima" and "piitika" continued year, courses "rhetoric" and "philosophy" have been studied for two years, "theology" - four years. From grade to grade students passed after the date of the relevant examinations. Education in the academy lasted a whole year. In the summer months they were allowed to take twice a month "recreation" - rest days.

Classes "phara", "infima" and "grammar" Lomonosov passed in a year. In the first class he studied Latin, in the second - Latin and Slavic language, in the third - Latin and Slavic grammar, geography, history, mathematics, and catechism. In January 1732 Lomonosov moved to the "sintaksima", where he studied Latin syntax, finished the study of arithmetic, geography, history, and a brief catechism. Six months later, he moved to the "poetics", where he studied Latin and Russian poetry, poetry theory of "Poetics" Aristotle and written in Latin, "The key poetics ..." Fyodor Kvetnitsky, who taught in this class. Students also practiced poetry. In his spare time, Mikhail Lomonosov read the ancient chronicles, spiritual and secular books in the library of the monastery Zaikonospassky. From July 1733 to July 1735, Mikhail was in the class "rhetoric", where he taught Latin. Students learned "Rhetoric" of Aristotle, Cicero works, other ancient authors, did exercises and poetic works written in Latin and Slavic languages, as well as participated in discussions and learn to pronounce the welcome speech.

In the autumn of 1734 Lomonosov at his request was sent to the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, where he studied ancient manuscripts, "Poetics" Theophanes Prokopovich, got acquainted with the artistic masterpieces of St. Sophia, St. Michael's Cathedral, Cathedral of the Dormition Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. It very influenced Lomonosov. For example, in 1754 he created a mosaic portrait of Peter I in a very similar manner of execution to the mosaics of St. Michael's Cathedral.

Probably all heard that while studying Lomonosov lived "on three kopeeks a day." But material deprivation were not as heavy as anguish. For many years, he wrote: "learning in schools Spassky, I had in all sides turned away from science strong aspirations that summer in the then almost insurmountable force had. On the one hand, the father, had children other than me not having said that I was being one had left, leaving contentment (for there of) that it is for me bloody sweat amassed and which, after his death, strangers plunder. On the other hand, unspeakable poverty: With one Altyn daily salary, it was impossible to have a day to feed more like a coin on bread and coin kvass, etc. on paper, shoes, and other needs. So I lived for five years and did not leave science. On the one hand, they write that, knowing my father's wealth, good people there for their daughters I give out, who when he was there in my suggested, on the other hand, students, small children, shout and point fingers: see de what fool came twenty years in Latin learn! ".

In July 1735, Mikhail Lomonosov moved to the first upper class "philosophy", where he studied courses in logic, physics and metaphysics. The teaching was based on the writings of Aristotle.

Graduates of the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy became priests, teachers, and government officials. It is not known what it would have been the fate of Mikhail Lomonosov, but at the end of 1735 it among the 12 students at the academy he was sent to study at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Initiated by Peter I in 1726, the first in the modern sense, scientific institution of Russia, first was consisted entirely of foreigners. It was envisaged that academics should prepare professors from Russian citizens, and for this target it was opened at the Academy high school and university. But Peter's successors on the throne did not care about the science, and even less - Academy. The first set (with 12 students) to the Academic University took place in 1732, and the second - in 1735-m - mainly thanks to the perseverance of the president of the Academy of Baron Johann Albrecht Korf, who won the Senate decree on the direction of the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy the best students to study at the Academy of Sciences.

January 1, 1736 Lomonosov together with 11 students arrived in St. Petersburg, where he was enrolled at the Academy of Sciences and the fifth of January began to study mathematics in physics. His teachers were the adjunct V.E.Adodurov and Professor of Experimental Physics G.V. .Kraft. In late January, Lomonosov bought the book V.K.Trediakovsky "A new and concise way to the addition of Russian poetry" and carefully studied it. A copy of this book with numerous corrections, inserts, and the comments made by his own hand, now kept in the archives of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

At the end of 1735 the Academy had the necessity to send in an expedition, which was engaged in the study of Siberia, of a professor, who knew chemistry and mining business. But there were no such experts at the academy, and foreigners wishing to travel thousands of miles, were not found. Then president of the Academy of Sciences Korf proposed to the Cabinet to send to study in Germany, to the scientist mining Physics" Henckel several capable young people. The proposal approved and sent to study 17-year-old "son advisor Berg-board" Gustav Ryser, 16-year-old " from Suzdal" Dmitry Vinogradov and 25-year-old "peasant's son" Mikhail Lomonosov. Director Berg-collegy determined what they need to learn science. Before leaving prospective students received appropriate instruction, in which, in particular, it was stressed the need to send every six months at the Academy of written reports on their studies.

At the beginning of November 1736, three Russians arrived in Marburg, began to learn the basics of arithmetic and geometry, as well as German. Sixth of November, they were referred to the University of Marburg, and from January 1737 started listening to lectures on theoretical chemistry professor Yu.G.Duyzing and mechanics with Professor Christian Wolff - the famous German scientist and encyclopedist. In May Lomonosov started taking French lessons, drawing, dancing and fencing. Fourth of September, he wrote in German (first) letter to the president of the Academy of Korf, in which he expressed gratitude for permission to study science in foreign academies.

March 14, 1738 Lomonosov with Vinogradov and Reiser sent to St. Petersburg report on the lessons from June 1737 to March 1738 with the message that during this time they "Mr regirungsrata Wolf took a course of mechanics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, while Mr. Dr. Duyzing course of theoretical chemistry ", and now listen to lectures Wolf dogmatic physics and logic, and also engaged in the French language and practice in drawing.

It should be noted that the Russian students, being in the medium, let's say, very uninhibited German students tried to keep up with them, and quickly spent the money received for a year of life (300 rubles) and got into debt. Lomonosov also a lot of money spent on books. March 19, 1738 H.Volf in the letter head of office of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences I.D.Shumaher asked to recall that Russian students to be more economical and do not make debts.

After that Schumache compiled a new "instructions to Marburg students", which ordered them to prepare their reports clearer, sharper and more detail. The must inform the academy about all lectures, the material covered, from time to time send test the thesis. In the statement of economic affairs they must list all the expenses, including the expenses of purchased books. "Teachers dancing and fencing," "will no longer hold" and "do not spend money on clothes," "beware of making debts, and be content with three hundred rubles, which are assigned to them for a year."

In August 1738 Lomonosov acquired and studied books on the theory of poetry, got acquainted with the poetic works of Latin, German, French and Italian translations of classical authors. In October, wrote the first scientific paper "On the transformation of a solid to a liquid ...", translated from French into Russian ode.

The second in January 1739 H.Volfa wrote in Petersburg that the lectures, which he had to read Russian students have been completed, they are engaged in their own and write their thesis. He also wrote: "It would be better, of course, if they were soon withdrawn from here, because they do not know how to use academic freedom and on the already finish what should have been here to do."

In February Lomonosov married the daughter of his landlady Elizabeth Christine Zilch. It seems that for her sake he studied dance and fencing.

In July 1739, Lomonosov, Vinogradov and Reiser went to Freiberg Professor Y.F.Genkelya, where he studied mineralogy, metallurgy, visited the mines and steel mills.

In August 1738 Lomonosov acquired and studied books on the theory of poetry, got acquainted with the poetic works of Latin, German, French and Italian translations of classical authors. In October, wrote the first scientific paper "On the transformation of a solid to a liquid ...", translated from French into Russian the verse.

The second in January 1739 H.Volf wrote in Petersburg that the lectures, which he had to read Russian students have been completed, they are engaged in their own and write their thesis. He also wrote: "It would be better, of course, if they were soon withdrawn from here, because they do not know how to use academic freedom and they already finished what should have been here to do."

In February Lomonosov married the daughter of his landlady Elizabeth Christine Zilch. It seems that for her sake he studied dance and fencing.

In July 1739, Lomonosov, Vinogradov and Reiser went to Freiberg to Professor Y.F.Genkel, where they studied mineralogy, metallurgy, visited the mines and steel mills.

Before leaving, Lomonosov received from Duyzing the attestation which demonstrated his success in the study of chemistry, which stated that "a very worthy and gifted young man, Mikhail Lomonosov, a student of philosophy ... with indefatigable diligence attended lectures chemistry during 1737 and, in my opinion, he received from them many benefits ... ". In his testimony H.Volf wrote: "A young man with excellent abilities Mikhail Lomonosov since his arrival in Marburg diligently attended my lectures on philosophy of mathematics, physics, and preferably with a special love trying to acquire thorough knowledge. I have no doubt that if he the same zeal will continue his studies, he eventually, on the return, can benefit the state, which I heartily wish him. "

At the end of 1739 Lomonosov sent to Academy in St. Petersburg in "Ode on the Taking of Khotin" and "Letter on rules of Russian versification", which originates from the new Russian poetry.

Very eventful for Lomonosov was 1740. He had quarreled with Henkel and left him, tried to meet with the Russian envoy to return home, visited several cities, visited several mines, was recruited by deception in the Prussian grenadiers, but escaped.

In 1741, Lomonosov returned to St. Petersburg and 8 June 1741 appeared in the office of the Academy of Sciences to report on the arrival. He received from the head of the Office of Schumacher's task to compile a catalog of stones and fossils Mineral Cabinet Cabinet of Curiosities. In August Lomonosov submit to the Academic Assembly "Discourse on catoptrics-diopter tool incendiary" and "Physical and chemical considerations of compliance silver and mercury ...", and by the end of the year wrote "Elements of Mathematical Chemistry." According to the results of the tasks and discussion of his theses, in January 1742 he was appointed assistant professor at the Academy, that is officially was recognized as the scientist.

Based on the book: Chronicles the life and work of M.V. Lomonosov.

V.Mikolaenko

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