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Dmitri Mendeleev - thought and work giant. The 180th anniversary

Дмитро Менделєєв

February, 8 marks the 180th anniversary of the world-famous Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev, whose monument is set before the fourth ("chemical") building of NTUU "KPI", and a bas-relief - on the facade of the first (main) building. Under the bas-relief there are words: "This volume of knowledge that I have seen in first graduates students of the Kiev Polytechnic, can not be found in well-known universities and me Institutes of Technology." These words are taken from a letter that Mendeleev - the first chairman of the examination committee - sent in 1903 to the head of the Russian government Witte. This high score, which gave an outstanding scientist first issue of the KPI - the pride of the Kiev Polytechnic. But the pride should be more if you imagine the full greatness of the one who gave this assessment.

Mendeleev was perhaps the most recognized Russian scientist in the world - it was over a hundred honorary degrees, in particular, he was an honorary member of almost all Russian and foreign academies and universities. Dmitri Ivanovich was elected Dr. Cambridge, Oksford, Edinburgh, Gottingen, Prinston universities, member of the London, Edinburgh, Dublin Royal Society, the Irish Royal Academy, Czech Academy of Sciences, Literature and Arts, Krakow, the Belgian Academy of Sciences, Literature and Fine Arts. He was a corresponding member of the Paris, Prussia, Hungary, Bologna, Serbian Academy of Sciences; honorary member of the Moscow, Kiev, Kazan, Kharkov, Novorossiysk, Saint-Peterburg, Tomsk, and many other universities. It should be added that his famous work "Principles of Chemistry", was published in Russia eight times for twenty years, and was published abroad, in English (three times), German and French.

Mendeleev's been called one of the last encyclopedic scientists.

Famous chemist L.O.Chugaev described the work of Dmitry Ivanovich: "The brilliant chemist, first-class physicist, a fruitful researcher in the field of hydrodynamics, meteorology, geology, in various fields of chemical technology (explosives, petroleum, the doctrine of the fuel, etc..) And other scienses bordering the chemistry and physics, deep knowledge of the chemical industry and industry in general, especially Russian, an original thinker in the field of study of the national economy, the public mind, which, unfortunately, was not destined to become a statesman, but who saw and understood challenges and the future of Russia sometimes better than the representatives of the official authorities ...

All of the various parts or the direction of its spiritual creativity, being carefully analyzed, are not isolated from each other and are not random; there is a feeling that they were bound by invisible threads, making one organic whole.

He knew how to be a philosopher in chemistry, physics and other branches of natural science, in which he had to touch, and a naturalist in the problems of philosophy, political economy and sociology. He was able to make light of science to problems of a practical nature and bring to life the theory of finding the place to us it in a form of various applications. "

Some idea of the breadth of Mendeleev scientific interests is given by a list of topics that are dealt with separate volumes of his collected works.

Volume 1 - Candidate and Master's dissertation ("Isomorphism in connection with other relations crystalline form of the composition" and "specific volumes").

Volume 2 - The Periodic Law.

Volume 3 - The study of aqueous solutions by specific weight.

Volume 4 - Mortars.

Volume 5 - Liquids.

Volume 6 - Gases.

Volume 7 - Geophysics and hydrodynamics.

Volume 8 - Work in the field of organic chemistry.

Volume 9 - Gunpowder.

Volume 10 - Oil.

Volume 11 - Fuel.

Volume12 - Work in the field of metallurgy.

Volumes 13 and 14 - "Fundamentals of Chemistry" (respectively, Part I and II).

Volume 15 - "Knowledge of the theoretical" short notes.

Volume 16 - Agriculture and processing of agricultural products.

Volume 17 - Technology.

Volume 18-21 - Economic Work (Volume I-IV).

Volume 22 - Metrological work.

Volume 23 - Education and Higher Education.

Volume 24 - Articles and materials on common issues.

Volume 25 - Additional materials (on these topics).

One third of more than 500 books, pamphlets, articles of Mendeleev is in the field of chemistry, and they cover all of its sections - theoretical foundations of chemistry, inorganic, organic, physical chemistry, all branches of chemical engineering at that time - from the industry and energy to agricultural chemistry chemistry of baking, cheese making, wine making, and so on. Second third of the works of Mendeleev covers physics, mathematics, geology, geophysics, meteorology, oceanography, hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, metrology, agronomy. The last third of the works deals with different issues of public life - economics, sociology, problems in education, law, and philosophy.

So, in the writings of Mendeleev were presented a lot of sciences and disciplines in all its aspects - from the fundamental theoretical and philosophical foundations to technology and the impact on the economy and social life.

"In the scientific study of objects - Mendeleyev wrote in his" Principles of Chemistry "- there are two main or ultimate goals: vision and benefit ... The triumph of scientific predictions would have very little value for people, if it does not lead directly to the common good" . Accordingly, he not only continued to a variety of research, but also made great efforts to ensure that scientific knowledge benefits people.

Back in the early 60s Dmitri Ivanovich began publishing a systematic series of books on various branches of industrial technology. With his participation as a translator, author, editor during 1862-1869 were published "Production of flour, bread and starch" (1862), "Sugar Production" (1862), "Production of alcohol and alkolometriya" (1862), "Glass Production "(1864)," Leather production "(1865)," Oil production "(1867)," Processing of animal products "(1868)," Papermaking "(1869). It was a real encyclopedia of technical and technological knowledge.

Later - on behalf of the Russian government - Mendeleev studied the natural, economic and technical possibilities of industrial development in different regions. He wrote about the development of the chemical, petroleum, metallurgy, coal industry, of agriculture, rail, river and sea transport. Many of the works were devoted to the problems of the integrated development of the productive forces of whole economic regions - the Donbass, the Caucasus, the Urals, Siberia and others. He published "Fundamentals of manufacturing industry" (1897), "The doctrine of the industry" (1900), "Explanatory rate or research on development industry in Russia in connection with the general customs tariff in 1891 "(1892). In the last book, by the way, Mendeleyev proved the necessity of the introduction of import duties to create favorable conditions for the development of the domestic industry.

Much attention is paid by Dmitry Ivanovich to improvement of education - secondary and higher education, he has written articles on these issues, has developed projects of schools and institutions. He also had a number of philosophical works, which deal with the methodology of science, the theory of knowledge, the role of science and industry in the life of society, and others.

And there were in Mendeleev's life episodes that can make adventure stories. Bright, perhaps - ballooning August 7, 1887 to observe the solar eclipse (rose to an altitude of 3800 m and flew 100 km), and the exposure of mediums who claimed to communicate with spirits of the dead. The latter was not easy - in those days, even some well-known scientists (V.Kruks, Dzh.Uolles, O.M.Butlerov, M.P.Vagner) believed in the reality of the "mediumistic phenomena." The Commission, chaired by Mendeleev conducted experimental studies and came to the firm conclusion: "spiritualistic teachings are superstitious." The Commission's work has received wide publicity in the community and, of course, instrumental in establishing the authority of science. And in the early 1890s. Mendeleev started to develop smokeless powder and in a short time developed a recipe and technology of the new type of powder (pirokoloid), which has been praised by the military.

Mendeleev suddenly died on February 2, 1907 from pneumonia. His death has stirred the entire country. Already in December the same year, in honor of his memory in St. Petersburg the First Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry (1907) was held, which brought together 1,008 participants. Chairman of the Congress was elected academician NN Beketov; "The Vice-Chairmans were elected famous scientists FM Flavitsky, Zhukovsky, P.M.Lebedeva, P.I.Valdena, I.O.Kablukova, S.M.Reformatskogo, D.M.Pryanishnikova, Svante Arrhenius (Stockholm); Secretaries - L.O.Chugaeva and M.S.Kurnakova. Four general meetings of the Congress were held. Reports, in addition, had being heard in the departments of chemistry, physics, agricultural chemistry, biology, hygiene. There is Mendeleev Congress also now - in 2011 the nineteenth Congress took place. Mendeleev readings are held every year in St. Petersburg. Name Mendeleev are a city, town, a crater on the moon, asteroid, Russian Chemical Society, educational institutions, the most famous of which - Russian Chemical-tech university. It is named after the element №101 - mendelevium obtained for the first time in 1955 at the University of California Radiation Laboratory.

But perhaps most importantly, that the ideas and thoughts of the great scientist for over a century attracted attention. From time to time works Mendeleev are reprinted, more than one hundred books devoted to activities like Mendeleev and his scientific and ephilosophical views are published. Constantly there are new articles on various aspects of his operations, where they uncover something new and relevant. By the way, there are in the Scientific and Technical Library of the University the collected works of Mendeleyev and his various books and pamphlets published during his lifetime, and books about it. The great scientist continues to live - in bronze, in books, in the memory of future generations.

Vladimir Ignat'evich

D.I. Mendeleev on science, industry, education and scientific outlook

From the preface to the 8th edition of the textbook "Fundamentals of Chemistry", 1906 "...

* * *

The main subject of the work is the philosophy of our science concerning the basic or primary qualitative and quantitative information about the chemical elements ...

* * *

Chemistry, like all science, is both the means and the end. It is a means to achieve some practical, in the general sense of the word, aspirations. So, when it is easier to master material assistance in its various forms, it gives new opportunities to use the forces of nature ... In this sense, chemistry is close to the business and master breeder, the role of its utility, it is a means to achieve good. Added to this, however, is different: in chemistry, as well as in every science, there are a number of higher aspirations are not limited to temporary and partial goals .. and to know it in this sense ... is expressed primarily certain outlook on the subject of her research ..

* * *

Building science requires not only material, but also a plan under construction labor, necessary for the workpiece material, and for the laying of it, to develop the plan itself, for a harmonious combination of parts to identify ways where you can get the most correct material. Learn, understand and embrace the harmony of the building with its scientific unfinished parts - means to receive such a pleasure which could provide only the highest beauty and truth.

* * *

In the scientific activity often architect and creator are combined, but often, as in life, they are different. Sometimes preceded by a plan, but more often follows the preparation and accumulation of raw material, sometimes breaking already compiled, and the material is used for a different matter. In built as part of a science building is equally at ease to live for those who worked, draw up detailed plans, preparing material, or make a brickwork, but also to anyone who wants to see the plan - not to get into basements and attics, where the dumped rubbish.

* * *

Knowing how to live freely and happily in the scientific field, unconsciously wish that many came here, and this affects the presentation .

* * *

Science crop will rise for the harvest of the people. Trying to comprehend the infinite, the science itself has no end, and being a worldwide inevitably takes on the national character ... need for training and call for the development of science for the benefit of this motherland - obvious, urgent and enormous. "

* * *

"I have not served neither capital, nor brute force, nor my own prosperity but only trying to ... give fruitful industrial real work to the country, convinced that the policy, construction, education and even defense are now without industrial development unthinkable. "

* * *

"The point is the whole story of education and industry shows that they are most easily and consistently develop together and equally under the cover of the state and with its conscious concerns. I say it with complete conviction and make an accent by direct statement: the science will be kind to people and will develop through it , where industrial development is deeply rooted. "

* * *

"In a country with an underdeveloped or primitive machine of government and industry, there is no real demand for education, especially higher education, and there dominated lethargy and formalism. Independent specialists with higher education do not find activity in the public and government sectors, and therefore fall in metaphysical abstracts and ugly utopia, or to despair and excesses, and in the best case - in unnecessary idle talk and decadence. Truly educated person, as I understand it in the modern sense, find a place only when he with his independent judgments will be needed either by government or by industry, or, generally speaking, by educated society, otherwise it will be "Woe from Wit".

* * *

"Professor, who only teaches a course, and he does not work in science and does not move forward - not only useless, but directly harmful. It will inspire beginners in ghastly spirit of classicism, scholasticism, will kill their lives aspirations."

* * *

"Not only the foundation, but also the content of higher education institutions and their organization must be one of the first concerns of the government, which care about its people, the preservation of the identity of the country and all the basic principles of its existence ... But the fact that the government that cares about the future of the people, should open and create institutions of higher education, it does not follow that it could guide them in all their ways, as in the case of education, both in religion and the arts, we need very special people, does not directly associated with the functions assigned a government, we need professors - specialists who alone can affect young adults .. that is to let them down to the very altar of knowledge and play with it the role that the chief priests play in religion, and artists in relation to art.

This means that the management and execution of the case of higher education should be entrusted to professors, given their scientific and moral responsibility, and all the influence of the government on the whole course of higher education should consist therefore of only two parts. The first and most important of this influence must be seen in the drafting of the Constitution or laws, which would be followed primarily by the professors, and through them to all their students. The second side of government influence should be limited, in my opinion, only with approval of those professors who are trusted with management of the entire institution, and the promotion of their activities for the benefit of youth and true education, that is mainly a further search of the truth, or scientific works. Not that professor should receive higher government approval, which only comply with the laws and only reports to young people to something well-known, but that one which, moreover, gives by personal example of the samples, for what the institutions of higher education are founded, that is the one that most contributes to independent new science. "

* * *

"... As in the republic of science" freedom "of opinion provided to the extent that there is no attempt to ask the majority or covertly or openly, to speak in the name of science can not only everyone who has studied anything, any writer and columnist stuffer, but also an ordinary crook, and therefore to be lost in "the last words of science" is extremely easy. ... Quiet shy statements usually accompanied by true science, and where biting and to judicial methods try to close your mouth any contradiction - the true Science does not exist, although there are sometimes artistic virtuosity and the many references to "the last word of science ." Read as Copernicus or Newton argued they had found the truth - check. True science is saying, "please do not take our word, and try to only check" , on its part, can not but express advice: for this science consider only what was confirmed after the doubts and all kinds of tests (observations and experiments, numbers and logic), and the "last word in science" not very much trust without trying, without waiting for more and more tests. New search for truth - it's just a science, but it does not follow that it boils down to "the last word".

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