Regulation on credit- modular system of educational process at the National Technical University of Ukraine " Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" (the Regulations) determines the characteristics of the educational process to introduce the ideas of the Bologna process.
ECTS educational system (the KMSONP) is the foundation of the European Credit Transfer and accumulating system (ECTS). The introduction of ECTS is one of the key areas of higher education in Ukraine's integration into the European Higher Education Area.
The aim of ECTS is enhancing student mobility , interoperability training programs and qualifications, training students on an individual variable part of educational and vocational programs, improving the quality of training and competitiveness, access to labour markets, enhance the prestige higher education in Ukraine.
It is believed that the introduction of ECTS facilitates academic recognition of diplomas and qualifications, educational programs and curricula become clear. ECTS-system is to make higher education of Ukraine more attractive to students from different countries.
Introduction of ECTS-system is rather useful:
- for Ukrainian students who wish to continue their education in one of the foreign universities as part of academic mobility and return to the home university to complete an educational program;
- for foreign students who study at the universities of Ukraine.
To implement ECTS university should have the following elements:
- Information Package – general information about the university (faculty), the name of the basic undergraduate programs (specialties) and professionally-orientated programs (specializations), annotation of disciplines (credit modules) with their status (obligatory or optional) and content, methods and technologies of teaching, forms and terms of control activities, a description of evaluation of knowledge and skills and recording student progress and admission conditions, tuition, accommodation and so on for each student;
- Agreement on study between the student and the university (direction, education level, procedures and sources of financing, payment);
- Academic transcript, certifying the student's achievements in the certain period of study. It indicates the student learned modules-ECTS, the scope and quality of their assimilation by the scale of achievements at the national level and with the ECTS-system;
- Diploma of the European standard and its supplement, that confirm obtaining academic degree / qualification . They have a clear format approved by the European Commission and the Council of Europe and adopted by States which have signed the Bologna Declaration.
Requirements for information packets and University Faculty (Institute) will be given below. Structure and content of other elements ECTS, necessary for the implementation KMSONP (agreement on education, academic transcript) are determined by particular regulations of NTUU "KPI".
1. Normative References
- Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of 23.01.2004, № 49 «On approval of the Programme of Action for the implementation of the Bologna Declaration in Higher Education and Science of Ukraine for 2004-2005»;
- Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of 23.01.2004, № 48 «On a pedagogical experiment with credit-modular system to learn»;
- Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of 20.10.2004, № 812 "On the introduction features of credit-modular system to the organization of educational process";
- Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of 06.06.2005, № 339 "On training of specialist by the National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”;
- order of NTUU "KPI" rector of 16.12.2004, the № 1-165 «On the development of ECTS-information package of NTUU" KPI »;
- order of NTUU "KPI" rector of 11.07.2005, the № 1-106 «On the program of priority actions for the implementation of the Bologna process»;
- order of NTUU "KPI" rector of 04.10.2005 № 1-133 «On introduction of credit-modular system of the organization of educational process»;
- Regulations on the organization of educational process in NTUU "KPI»;
- Regulations on certification and semester control of students.
The development of regulations involved:
- experience of NTUU "KPI" acquired during the pedagogical experiment of credit-modular system of educational process organization on 5 faculties and 2 institutes in 2004-2005;
- recommendations and materials of workshop, which were held by MES of Ukraine during 2003-2004 pp. and VII International scientific and methodological conference "Higher Technical Education: Prospects for development in the light of the Bologna Process", Kyiv - 2005;
- materials of methodological workshops involving 14 universities that were put in charge to NTUU "KPI" as the baseline regional center for the implementation KMSONP according to the orders of MES of Ukraine from 23.01.04 № 48, № 49 and of 21.05. 04 № 415.
2. Basic terms and definitions
ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) is a systematic way of describing educational programs by assigning credit units of its components (subjects, courses, etc.). ECTS system is based on consideration of the overall training workload of the student in mastering certain credit module training program and the results of this work.
Credit module (ECTS module) is a training course (part of multi-semestrial discipline), which is studied in a certain semester. Credit module has a certain amount of ECTS credits, and the level of mastering must be defined in the ECTS system of evaluation.
ECTS credit is standard unit (credit unit - cr.) of measuring the training workload of a certain program of higher education. According to the order of MES Ukraine of 20.10.04, the № 812 - the price of credit units (cr.) is 36 academic hours of training students (including time to conduct classes, self-study, semester control and practices).
examination credits are the description of the amount, training workload of a certain part of training program and the quality of learning student. Students receive examination credits only after mastering a certain credit module and a positive assessment of the achieved learning results.
Structural Logical Scheme (SLS) of training program is a document that defines the natural and logical relations of precedence between credit module training programs. SLS brings certain limitations of mastering sequence of credit modules in the preparation of individual education plans of students.
Credit evaluation system is a system which is based on a step by step control and accumulation of rating points for diverse training and learning activities of students with a certain credit module (discipline).
Training (Content) module is logically completed part of the curriculum (part of the curriculum) of the individual credit module, which implies mastering of specific knowledge and skills.
Rating Points of Discipline (rk) are quantification of results in points of sertain a student's educational activity depending on its importance and quality.
Rating score of discipline RD is quantification by multi-scale-level learning by a student of a certain credit module depending on the quality of educational activity during the semester.
ECTS Grading System is European system of evaluating the success of mastering by a student of credit modules. The system includes seven-point scale (A, B, C, D, E, FX, F) and double (descriptive and statistical) definitions of these ratings.
Semester Rating R ( t ) is a quantitative description of student's performance in a given semester.
Integral rating RI ( T ) is a quantitative description of the success of student learning in general, for the previous period of study.
3. Basic Terms
Basic principles of ECTS are:
- respect to the autonomy of countries and universities in the field of educational policy;
- improve the international "transparency" of existing national education systems and qualifications;
- compatibility with any national / regional educational system, which may have or may not have a credit system;
- apply to all kinds of programs and modes of education in higher educational institutions (full-time, part-time, evening, distance, external), and continuous learning;
- use and development of existing parameters of ECTS: International Transfer of Examination Credits, information package, registration of assessments and others;
- compatibility with "Diploma Supplement», explaining and making transparent academic and professional qualifications of the university.
key elements of KMSONP are academic credits as a measure of training workload and quality of students’ training and stimulating point-credit evaluation system in combination with the progressive principles of educational management. The basic principles of educational management are:
- clearly set ideals and aims of education;
- pedagogical design of educational process;
- competent advice;
- prompt, reliable (objective), complete, accurate and continuous monitoring of academic performance and accounting;
- fair treatment of students;
- mutual respect to students and teaching staff
- encouraging of students (in points and using moral means of stimulating the motivation to studying) for quality and timely fulfilling of educational tasks;
- presence among teachers and students of clearly formulated standard instruction and strict following, thereby increasing the quality of collaboration of students and teachers, objective mutual control, predictability of evaluations received by a student.
In terms of the functional aspects the system of examinational credit is the basis of:
- individual-oriented organization of the educational process, providing students the opportunity to independent accomplishment of individual educational content, determining the sequence of mastering certain disciplines, drafting individual semester schedules of classes;
- creation and continuous development of curricula, programs, and standards of higher education;
- expanding academic freedom of teachers.
ECTS-system is based on an agreement that 60 credits measure training workload of full-time student during one academic year period. In most cases in higher education academic year contains 36-40 academic weeks, in this case a ECTS credit (cr) is 32-36 academic hours. Thus, ECTS-credit is a unit of labour training activities and determines training program content which can be mastered by a student in 36 hours of training. The general training workload to obtain a bachelor's degree, which takes standard 3 years and 10 months is not less than 240 credits.
The training workload of student in terms of ECTS includes the time taken to attend classes, internships, independent work (preparation for occupation and control measures, individual semester tasks, preparation of the thesis), as well as on semester control. Examinational credits are the way to determine the quantitative results of students training results - set of competencies (what the student will know what can possess, which has to be able to do after a certain part of the learning process).
The organization of educational process on the basis of the presence or absence of general students’ and teachers’ schedule of classes can be divided into two types - synchronous and asynchronous.
Asynchronous organization of educational process provides the student the opportunity to the mastering of training material at any convenient time, which is not pre-determined timetable.It is most common for part-time and distance learning , when a student works with educational environment that is pre-established for him/her in some form by teachers. It can be interactive computer tutorials, trainings, test tasks for self-study, control tests, television lectures recorded on electronic media, sets of guidelines and traditional textbooks and other educational material designed for self-study, etc. Asynchronous educational environments may also include laboratory available for students in other than educational schedule time, training rooms, testing and control laboratories, computer labs, libraries, and so on (not excluding the possibility of the appointment to obtain access to the elements of asynchronous learning environment ). Asynchronous organization of educational process usually are not self-sufficient and in practice is used in combination with synchronous educational organization.
Synchronous organization of educational process implies the existence of pre-compiled schedule of classes, common for teachers and students. Synchronous organization of educational process can be divided into group- and individual-oriented.
Traditional in Ukraine is well-known group organization of the educational process. During individually-oriented organization classes are also held in groups. However, unlike the current-group training organization, each group is created for one semester only to study a particular educational discipline controlled by a teacher possibly selected by students.
The important feature of KMSONP is obligatory planning of the content of self-study, the differentiation of the forms of training classes and individual tasks, principal opportunity of ratio differentiation between the hours of classroom and independent work of disciplines depending on the pedagogical methods applied by the teacher, regular monitoring of fulfilling tasks for independent work.