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Grigorovich Dmitry Pavlovich. Life and aircraft

1915. Літаючий човен М-5

In early 2008, Ukraine almost did not notice the 125-year anniversary of one of its most famous aircraft designers of the first half of the twentieth century, Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich, who was born, educated and formed as the creator of aviation in Kiev. His life was full of ups and downs. Of the 80 aircraft designs developed by him or under his direction, flying boats out of the sea, long been second to none in the world. He also created one of the world's best fighters of his time, trained a whole galaxy of designers aviation and anti-aircraft rockets and gave the world aircraft industry a number of ideas that are used in the construction of aircraft nowadays.

The first steps.

Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich was born on February 6 (January 25, at art. Style), 1883 in Kiev in the labor intellectual family. His father, Pavlo Dmitrovich, great-nephew of the famous Russian writer Dmitry Vasilyevich Grigorovich, at first he worked in a sugar factory, and later - in the military commissariat department. Mother Jadwiga Kostyantinivna, was the daughter of country doctor. Since childhood, Dmitry demonstrated curiosity in the exact sciences, he liked tinkering . Therefore when it came time to decide where to go to learn, parents sent their son to Kyiv in secondary school.

As mentioned in the regulations of this institution, "it provided general education, adapted to the practical needs of the in-depth study of a number of science". German and French were two compulsory European languages. On the subject of natural sciences and the social sciences was given significantly more hours than traditional schools. Sufficiently a lot of hours were given to practical training in workshops and laboratories. Graduates of secondary school were eligible to enter the polytechnic institutes and traditional universities, however, only on the physico-mathematical and medical faculties. Naturally, after graduating of secondary school in 1902 Dmitry Grigirivich chosen for their further study Mechanical department of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute of Alexander II.

Студент КПІ Дмитро ГригоровичStudent of Polytechnic.

Despite the fact, established in 1898, the Institute has not had a fully equipped training facilities, its management was able to collect a very powerful scientific and teaching staff. In addition, it was required be involved in scientific activities in KPI. It was the basis of scientific and technological circles. This prompted future engineers to self-improve knowledge in advanced fields instilled a taste for search and design work, formed the scientific and technical culture of thinking. Exactly students of the KPI were true pioneers in development of new technology. One of these branches of student’s create work, where Dmitry Grigorovich was actively involved from the first days, was Aeronautic KPI group, founded in 1905. The actual group leader was a student Nikolay Egorovych Zhukovsky, professor of mechanics Nikolai Borisovich Delone. Study group listened lectures about the basics of aeronautics that were taught by Mykola Delone, themselves opposed to reports and presentations and, most importantly, actively engaged in designing and manufacturing its own aircraft. For a while aeronautic group of KPI actually started to act as the first technical training and research center of aviation-technical account to the south of the Russian Empire (another powerful center Aviation was founded in Sankt-Peterburg). For several years, Kiev created 40 new designs of aircraft. So, not surprisingly, many students later became known aircraft, and some of them have gained great fame. "Falls ill" for his life by aircraft and Dmitry Grigirovich. Before the graduate from the KPI Dmitry went to the Belgian city of Liege, where in one of the institutions listened two semesters of studying about aerodynamics and the theory of engines. "Since 1909 - wrote N.Suknevych, wife of Dmitry Pavlovich - when Dima graduated from Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, we were both passionate about aviation. Our room was littered with mechanical segments, engine elements, various details. Not far from the Polytechnic Institute on the Kurynivska field he rents shed and adapts it under hangar. Nearly is another hangar of Polytechnic student - Igor Sikorsky. The first light sport biplane G1 with the engine "Anzani" wit the power of 25 horsepower Dima built with bamboo, which tested on 10 January 1910". Subsequent work of D.Hryhorovycha was airplane and was built on a scheme that followed the French aircraft design "Blerio XI", also with the engine "Anzani" but with its own control system and chassis design. Grigorovich built it with amateur of motorsports and rich man Ilnytskym. Financial assistance from Ilnytsky was enough to finish work on a new airplane and show it to Kiev exhibition of aeronautics. Aircraft attracted general attention and aviation enthusiasts. Magazine "Automobile and aeronautics" called it the best design of the exhibition. Fyodor Tereshchenko was interested in development of Dmitry Grigorovich. Tereshchenko is a descendant of one of the wealthiest merchant families in Kiev, which was one of the initiators and patrons in creation of KPI. Tereshchenko also studied at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, and he dreamed of becoming an aviator. His fascination with aviation was so strong that in own estate in the village Chervone in Berdichev county, he even has equipped own airfield and avia-workroom. Fyodor Tereshchenko invited Grigorovich for cooperation. Soon the two their common sport airplanes were born - G2 and G3. Designer and implementer of all major work was Dmitry Grigorovich, nurser - Fyodor Tereshchenko. Later Fyodor Fyodorovich Tereshchenko was one of the first Russian pilots, during the revolutionary events emigrated abroad and died in Paris in 1950.

In St. Petersburg.

Even in years of study at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute Grigorovich admired the idea of creating seaplanes and even started to do his drawings. But Kyiv, where in the early 20s of the last century rapidly developed only overland aircraft, could not be the dream destination of Grigorovich. Therefore, in 1911, Dmitry Grigorovich went to St.Petersburg - the capital of the Russian Empire at that time. Start working as an engineer at the new place he managed not at once. He started work as a journalist in the popular science magazine " Bulletin of aeronautics". It was in 1911, this magazine was published famous work of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky " Investigation of outer space by rocket appliances". Publication of D.Hryhorovycha also attracted the attention. One of the first he appreciated the possibility of using aircraft for military purposes: "... a modern airplane is no longer a toy, but a powerful and always available means of communication, intelligence and even fight for modern warfare it is just as necessary as the infantry, cavalry or artillery ". These lines were written in the same year as the official organ of the Imperial Russian automobile company magazine "Automobile" was printed: "Aviation is now fashionable game, very interesting, but is that the situation is not embraced by rank, and the future role of aviation is so vague and misty that bother for it in the name of progress, probably not worth it". In those days ambiguous attitude to aviation even eminent statesmen and military authorities not only in Russia but also in other countries of aircraft - the USA and France. Dreaming of returning to the practical work, Grigorovich was not limited purely theoretical research and journalist. He moved from Kyiv one of their planes and to St.Petersburg and made several successful flights at the airport Commandant. Their witness was known amateur of aviation - Sergei Shchetinin, founder of the first Russian Empire Aircraft Factory called "The first Russian aeronautics company S.S.Schetinina and K °". Subsequently Shchetinin invited the young engineer to work as manager and technical director of the plant. Acquainted with the situation at the plant, Dmitry Grigorovich proposed to begin creating new aircraft designs, which at that time were very necessaryfor military industrial empire. Successful implementation of this intention by accident that in a short time completely changed the profile of the company and Dmitry Grigorovich became the first number of Russian aircraft designers of the worlds.

1915. Літаючий човен М-5Boats that can fly

Once applied to the management of the plant the manager of Baltic Fleet naval aviation, captain of second rank Dmitry Alexandrov, requesting repair injured in training military seaplane flying "DonneLevek". It was interested and Dmitry Grigorovich with the head of the drawing office A.Sedelnykovym offered to repair the plane, and thus make his drawings and start producing similar machines in the factory. During the execution of this idea to create a hidroaeroplan, but with the introduction of its fundamental design changes from "DonneLevek". D.Hryhorovych proposed to set the float plane is not required for take-off and landing on water, and construct "a boat that flies," which could simultaneously play the role of the fuselage and landing plane land element.

The new construction, called M1, outrivaled all expectations of specialists. The body of the aircraft was on a meter shorter than the "DonneLeveka" and airfoil provided significantly better aerodynamic characteristics. The machine first arose in the air on June 1, 1914 - two months before the outbreak of the First World War.

Almost immediately designer began working on a new boat, which would take into account imperfections of "DonneLeveka" and M1. It has been completely original machine, called M2. It was first used special stocks on which building housed the keel up, thus ensuring greater convenience in operations with its preparation and tuning.

General theoretical basis for the design of seaplanes, which were run in two environments - air and water - in those days there was no. The total effect on their hydraulic and gas effects were not always able to provide. So problems that one by one faced by developers of such equipment had to deal with literally on the move by the accumulation of theoretical and practical experience.

Truly successful was the next development - Double flying boat M5, trial which ended in April 1915. Constructor could find the best value engine (100 hp), wing area (37.96 sq. m.), Take-off weight (960 kg) and drag. Famous pilot George Fried, who flew on the M5 near all bridges on the Neva River, testing this hidroaeroplan, described him as an outstanding. The device had a great naval qualities and exceeded some characteristics that were recorded in the technical specifications. For example, instead recorded 275 kilograms of cargo received 300 kg, maximum height is not gaining ten minutes,but three and a half.

Immediately after the flight test aircraft was taken into service by Baltic and Black Sea fleets. Output of the seaplanes this type lasted until 1923, which was high for the time when the design changed one another sometimes for several months. Moreover, the M5 quite quickly replaced from the national naval aviation foreign cars and became one of the two main types of flying boats, which are widely used in the Russian army in war.

Another successful brainchild of Grigorovich was twin Marine scout-bomber M9, which has since 1916 been launched in the series and was produced until 1924. With the engine at 150 hp this machine ensured higher speed than many fighters then, well kept afloat during storm at four points, allowed its use on the open sea. Due to concave redan, the plane could land and take off even from the snow. M9 had also excellent aerodynamic qualities. With this development D.Hryhorovych could prove for aviation world that the flying boat drag and weight may be less than the land the aircraft, which provided a better aerodynamic qualities.

In September 1916 it is clearly confirmed the outstanding pilot of the first generation pilots, Lieutenant Jan Nahurskyy. It is the world's first flying boat that made for two "dead" loop running. No one was able to repeat " Nesterov’s loop" on flying boats other structures.

Armed with a machine gun and later automatic gun, caliber 37 mm and four designs M.Shyshmarova pood bombs M9 became the main naval aircraft of the Russian army on the Baltic and Black Sea theaters of war of World War I. He brilliantly proved itself not only as a naval intelligence officer, but as a bomber. Worthily to note that due to the successful design and fighting qualities of the machine, allies countries of the Russia was interested. Several samples of M9 was acquired by USA and UK bought his drawings and technical documentation.

Scouts, fighters, bombers, torpedo-plane...

1916 came to light for Dmitry Grigorovich and his team extremely successful. One by one plant produced new aircraft. The most remarkable trace in aviation history at that posted the fastest time in the world armored flying boat fighter M11, M15 maritime reconnaissance, special "winter" double-float seaplane M16 (pilots still call it "Zymnyak") and a huge triple-motor long-range maritime reconnaissance bomber and installers of mines - Mk1 ("Sea cruiser"). In the same year Dmitry Grigorovich together with the head of the design bureau of the plant Shchetinin Michael Shyshmarov began to design hydroplane called GASN - "Gidroaeroplan for special purpose". It was the world's first marine torpedo-plane who had to carry and drop a torpedo in the direction of an enemy ship. As the seaplane had to be a place for hanging torpedoes, it was designed by double-float biplanovoyu scheme of cabin on the lower wing center section.Torpedo was secured between floats. Hydroplane could carry a payload of almost a half ton (1450 kg). His first test flight was on August 24, 1917 revealed that the aircraft has excellent morehidnist and handling on the water, but tweak because of new facts recovered from completely different conditions. Successful performance of the Shchetinin's plant in hidroaviatsiyi led to the growth in productivity of 30-40 cars per month. Significantly increased and the number of employees, if at the time when D.Hryhorovych first came to the factory, there were only 120 people, at the beginning of 1917 - more than two thousand workers and engineers. It should be noted that the high rate of creating more and more new designs promoted as personal traits of Grigorovich and his unique knowledge and skills acquired in KPI. Like other prominent designers of aviation and rocket and space technology who graduated from KPI (Sikorski, Mikulina, Kalinin, Lulka, Lyulyev, Korolev, Chelomei), he not only had a deep fundamental knowledge, but also knew the production was able to run for any political worker draftsman or engineer. We have memories of his colleagues, who explains that Dmitri Pavlovich himself did not only common species, but also drawings of individual parts and components of aircraft involved in calculating the strength and weight of their structures could not only control the workers, and, where appropriate, and show how to properly exercise the tool, etc. It stimulated his associates and colleagues to achieve more and more. Therefore, in parallel with the plant S.Schetynina, June 1st, 1917 Grigorovich founded his own research Aircraft Building Plant named "D.P.Hryhorovych". In own company Dmitri Pavlovich designed, tested and prepared for serial production for several designs of machines. There were flying boats M17, M18, M 19, M 20 and M21, which belonged to the class of amphibious aircraft. They could take off from earth and land on water. These aircraft perform and function of counter-fighters and it provided a very high speed and other aerodynamic characteristics.

1926. Розвідник відкритого моря РОМ-1The time of "great changes"

The revolutionary events of 1917-1918 interrupted the rapid progress of Dmitry Grigorovich in aircraft. In March 1918 his factory was nationalized and transformed to produce agricultural equipment. According to some reports, in those days he was invited to go abroad, but stayed at home.The company of S.Schetynina also was transformed into the State Aviation Plant "Red pilot". Trying to survive and save his family, D.Grigorovich went to work in the Main Committee Joint aircraft factory - the governing body of the aircraft. However, he worked there not for a long time: during starvation in Petrograd Grigorovich and his family moved to Kyiv, and then - to Odessa, then went to Taganrog. In Taganrog worked at an aircraft factory, which was the main profile and repair of aircraft engines. At the initiative of Grigorovich, of various orders and plans, there was built a float Marine Fighter Mk1 ("Rybka"), in which Dmitry Pavlovich took a part. Soon orders for "Rybka" was delivered to factory "Krasnyi letchyk" and Grigorovich got a chance to return to Petrograd.

On the "Krasnyi letchyke" besides introduction of new aircraft, Grigorovich returned to complete marine torpedo GASP, which was half-forgotten in the factory's yard since 1917. Hidroaeroplan was repaired and there was some changes in design, and in the summer of 1920 began test flights.

Large-scale business

In connection with the receipt of the order to design a new sea spy plane in mid 1922 Hryhorovych moved to Moscow, where he was appointed a technical director and head of the design bureau of the State Aviation Plant № 1 (DAZ 1) - former aircraft factory "Dux ". In this role Grygorovych replaced another well-known aviation expert - Nikolai Polikarpov, which was transferred to the design department Holovkoavia.

The company built a new Soviet spy plane P1 under the engine at 400 horsepower. The plane constructed on the basis of the captured British cars DN9. Before the coming to the D.Hryhorovych company the terms set out in the job, frustrated, working flagged. Perseverance, knowledge of the case and organizational skills of D.Hryhorovych accelerated the revival of production and ensure prompt resolution of dozens of large and small tasks. For June 29, 1923 after a successful trial air force were transferred to the first two planes P1. For some time the plant has produced over 38 such aircraft per month.

However, the design staff of the company has worked hard over the next request - the creation of domestic fighter. They became biplane I2 with M5 engine 400 horsepower developed under the leadership of D.Hryhorovych and adopted by early 1925. It was a wooden plane with small wings of arrows similarity, which further developed some design solutions found while working on the previous version of I1 (Ystrebytelpervy). With the emergence of I2, the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, signed by M. Frunze fighters foreign brands in April 1925 were retired Red Army.

However the tuning and engineering maintenance fighter I2 D.Hryhorovych had already engaged in Leningrad. In early 1925 Dmitri Pavlovich was again transferred to the plant "Krasnyletchyk" (later - State Aviation Plant number 23), where Aviatrest was created the first department of marine research aircraft in the country. D.Hryhorovych as the country's most famous flying boat designer, was appointed to lead it. The circle was closed, and Hryhorovych returned to the company where his brilliant career began designer seaplanes.

For a short time Dmitry Hryhorovych created number of projects and prototypes sea scouts - MRL1 ("Morskoy Razvedchyk with the engine" Liberty ") and their subsequent modifications - MP2, MP3, training aircraft MUR1, MU2 (" Morskoy Uchebny with the engine "Ron" and "Morskoy Uchebny"); distant sea scouts ROM1 , ROM2, ROM2bis ("Razvedchyk Otkrytoho Morya"), two-float, two-tail sea destroyers under two tandem mounted engines MM1 ("Morskoy Mynonosets"), MT1 ("Morskoy Torpedonosets").

Unfortunately, due to some design flaws, incomplete compliance with the requirements of the customer, and sometimes through outright intrigue in the aviation industry, most of these machines for serial production is not reached.

«Inside prison»

The chain of certain failures coincided with the start of the campaign launched against the "old" experts, ie people were formed before the revolution and now work in the national economy. It is their country's leadership laid the responsibility for the lagging pace of industrial development. Above ignored the fact that the plans for the development, implementation and production of new technology, which descended on businesses often do not take into account the realities of what was then the economy: the lack of qualified personnel, depreciation and obsolescence of machinery equipment. Harassment Social foreign country may run quickly. Special Committee "to eliminate sabotage" were made on each plant defense.

The first high-profile trial of "bourgeois spices" were "Shakhty case" and "Industrial Party case." September 1, 1928 it came to Hrygorovych. He was arrested in his office, accused of sabotage and sent to Butyrska prison. Following to Hrygorovych there were arrested his associates such as A.Sedelnykov, Ye.Mayoranov, V.KorvynKerber, who began working with him for another first Russian Aircraft "S.S.Schetynina and K». A little later, a wave of arrests swept and aviation specialists in other enterprises of the defense industry.

Meanwhile spring of 1928 the Soviet government adopted a "Plan of the Armed Forces for the future five years," which declared that the main task of military and leadership are two goals: "... largest primary opponents do not give in ... for - to be stronger than them in critical types of weapons - namely, by Air Force, artillery and tanks. " Therefore, management has decided to use the OGPU prisoners experts in their specialties straight. Henry Berry, the deputy head of the OGPU who was charged with first curator of the newly established prison design bureau, defended the idea.

1933. Гарматний винищувач I-ZCB has been created in December 1929 directly in Butyrska prison, equipping two cameras drawing supplies. Chief Designer of Special Design Bureau (the name was a new structure) was appointed Dmitry Hryhorovych, his deputy - Nikolai Polikarpov, arrested on charges of involvement in counter-revolutionary organization. Those prisoners who were enrolled in the EDB, housing conditions have improved - increased nutritional standards, often drove to the bath and allowed family visits. Immediately after the formation of the OKB was visited by Deputy Chief of Air Force and set Ya.Alksnis task until spring 1930 to design a fighter whose characteristics are not inferior to the best foreign analogues.

Subsequently Hryhorovych group was transferred to the territory of aircraft Menzhynsky factory (DAZ number 39), located not far from the main airport. In his memoirs, another well-known Soviet aircraft designer Alexander Yakovlev, who after Viyskovopovitryanoyi Academy Zhukovskoho was assigned to the plant, he wrote: "They lived and worked in the mysterious" seventh hangar ", adapted for the inner prison." This hangar supervisors divided into two parts: one contained residential area, the other - working the room.

For some three months imprisoned designers and engineers have developed a model of future fighter. The construction of a prototype of his time was spent even less - only month and 29 April 1930, he was first tested in air. A little later, the world saw two aircraft of this design, which received its own name - "Klim Voroshilov" and "Gift XVI Party Congress." Different engines and they form fairings on the hood and chassis.

High maneuverability and good weight of fighter at the time was one of the best in the world. The armament its basic sample constituted two guns PV1 with 1200 cartridges, and later installed on these machines and four machine guns and increased of 40 kg bombs. Ground speed is 278 km / h - at that time were very good. His first name - VT5 (Tue letters meant "inner prison") was subsequently changed. The aircraft received the code and 5 and by the end of testing went into the series. After setting into service up to and including 1939 were produced more than 800 machines of this type. Some of them are used at the beginning of the Second World War.

The success of I5 fighter inspired leadership OGPU expansion of Special Design Bureau, or as they are called, "sharashok." A EDO by D.Hryhorovych received the following order - the development has a number of combat aircraft. Among them was a heavy naval bomber. However, the recent development of sketch made other design teams. Among them there was a group led by then little known "Italian red" Robert Bartini. He proposed a forty-ton super giant catamaran for the original scheme. Enough there was only one word recognized designer seaplane by Hryhorovych, who also was a need then to state commission made it his project, and bold proposal Bartini would be rejected. But because of high integrity Dmitry Pavlovich could not to prevaricate even for their own salvation. During the considering solutions, engineering solutions, he said: "I think that the one offered Bartini prospectively. So my project I shoot. "

Soon the Hryhorovych team EDO expanded to 300 by civilian experts, and the new name CDB (Central Design Bureau) it entered into the Technical Department of Economic Management OGPU. Mode of prisoners CDB staff were relaxed. A July 10, 1931 Dmitry Hrygorovych was dreamed of freedom. In those days the newspaper "Pravda" published the decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR: "... amnesty ... Chief Designer of experimental aircraft Dmitry Pavlovich Hryhorovych, who repented of their past deeds and hard work proved in practice its remorse. Reward his diploma CEC of the USSR and cash prize of 10,000 rubles. "

Clearing and recent developments

When Dmitry Hryhorovych was freed, he left work at their CDO. While there were conducted the search and investigation appropriate scheme of light and heavy attack aircraft, designed gun monoplane fighter IZ and IP1 (factory code DH52), armed with recoilless rifles and machine guns, produced large series.

The job in CDB Dmitry Pavlovich combined with teaching and research at the Moscow Aviation Institute, where he headed the department "Construction and design of aircraft." From his school began to emerge talented designers and anti-aircraft boat aviation technology, among whom there was the future outstanding designer, academician of the USSR Pyotr Grushin. Hryhorovych and his students were among the first who started to use airplanes to build special alloy steels and alloys, allowing the best to keep the strength of aircraft structures even at supersonic speeds. Using this approach Dmitry Pavlovich designed and built a plane with a record range, which was called "StalMAI." Spring of 1938 Hryhorovych has a new position is the head of the newly organized KB in Novosibirsk. But in Siberia, he could not go: severely ill and 26 July of that year, the fifty-sixth year of life died of blood cancer. He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.

The outcome of his life were designed 80 types of aircraft, nearly forty of which were built in series, a powerful school of talented students, creators of aviation and space technology and brilliant design solutions, and to this day considered a classic in the aircraft industry. Portrait gallery of the distinguished alumni memorial of KPI and exhibition in the State Museum Polytechnical University convey to current polytechnic students memory of the great achievements and victories of their famous predecessor.

Michael Zgurovsky, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Rector of NTU "KPI" | "Mirror Weekly» № 13, 1117 April 2009

Translated by Kravchuk Iryna and Shmidt Ol’ga, LA-02

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